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      Positional cloning moves from perditional to traditional.

      Nature genetics

      Humans, Human Genome Project, genetics, Genetic Diseases, Inborn, methods, Cloning, Molecular, trends, Chromosome Mapping

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          Abstract

          The technique of positional cloning has become a familiar component of modern human genetics research. After a halting start in the mid-1980s, the number of disease genes succumbing to cloning efforts based solely on pinpointing their position in the genome is growing exponentially. More than 40 genes have been identified so far. But the positional candidate approach, which combines knowledge of map position with the increasingly dense human transcript map, greatly expedites the search process and will soon become the predominant method of disease gene discovery. The challenge ahead is to apply such methods to identifying genes involved in complex polygenic disorders.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Genetic dissection of complex traits

           E Lander,  N Schork (1994)
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            Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

            Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that affects tissues derived from neural ectoderm. It is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and phaeochromocytoma. The MEN2A gene has recently been localized by a combination of genetic and physical mapping techniques to a 480-kilobase region in chromosome 10q11.2 (refs 2,3). The DNA segment encompasses the RET proto-oncogene, a receptor tyrosine kinase gene expressed in MTC and phaeochromocytoma and at lower levels in normal human thyroid. This suggested RET as a candidate for the MEN2A gene. We have identified missense mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in 20 of 23 apparently distinct MEN 2A families, but not in 23 normal controls. Further, 19 of these 20 mutations affect the same conserved cysteine residue at the boundary of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains.
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              Light-generated oligonucleotide arrays for rapid DNA sequence analysis.

              In many areas of molecular biology there is a need to rapidly extract and analyze genetic information; however, current technologies for DNA sequence analysis are slow and labor intensive. We report here how modern photolithographic techniques can be used to facilitate sequence analysis by generating miniaturized arrays of densely packed oligonucleotide probes. These probe arrays, or DNA chips, can then be applied to parallel DNA hybridization analysis, directly yielding sequence information. In a preliminary experiment, a 1.28 x 1.28 cm array of 256 different octanucleotides was produced in 16 chemical reaction cycles, requiring 4 hr to complete. The hybridization pattern of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide targets was then detected by epifluorescence microscopy. The fluorescence signals from complementary probes were 5-35 times stronger than those with single or double base-pair hybridization mismatches, demonstrating specificity in the identification of complementary sequences. This method should prove to be a powerful tool for rapid investigations in human genetics and diagnostics, pathogen detection, and DNA molecular recognition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/ng0495-347
                7795639

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