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      Oleanolic acid induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in gallbladder cancer cells

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          Abstract

          Oleanolic acid (OA), a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in many tumor cell lines. Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, and is a highly aggressive tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the effects of OA on gallbladder carcinoma are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA on gallbladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner on MTT and colony formation assay. A flow cytometry assay revealed apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Moreover, this drug inhibited tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data suggest that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle process. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade.

          We report here the purification of the third protein factor, Apaf-3, that participates in caspase-3 activation in vitro. Apaf-3 was identified as a member of the caspase family, caspase-9. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CED-3 homologous domains in the presence of cytochrome c and dATP, an event that leads to caspase-9 activation. Activated caspase-9 in turn cleaves and activates caspase-3. Depletion of caspase-9 from S-100 extracts diminished caspase-3 activation. Mutation of the active site of caspase-9 attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and cellular apoptotic response in vivo, indicating that caspase-9 is the most upstream member of the apoptotic protease cascade that is triggered by cytochrome c and dATP.
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            Cellular mechanisms controlling caspase activation and function.

            Caspases are the primary drivers of apoptotic cell death, cleaving cellular proteins that are critical for dismantling the dying cell. Initially translated as inactive zymogenic precursors, caspases are activated in response to a variety of cell death stimuli. In addition to factors required for their direct activation (e.g., dimerizing adaptor proteins in the case of initiator caspases that lie at the apex of apoptotic signaling cascades), caspases are regulated by a variety of cellular factors in a myriad of physiological and pathological settings. For example, caspases may be modified posttranslationally (e.g., by phosphorylation or ubiquitylation) or through interaction of modulatory factors with either the zymogenic or active form of a caspase, altering its activation and/or activity. These regulatory events may inhibit or enhance enzymatic activity or may affect activity toward particular cellular substrates. Finally, there is emerging literature to suggest that caspases can participate in a variety of cellular processes unrelated to apoptotic cell death. In these settings, it is particularly important that caspases are maintained under stringent control to avoid inadvertent cell death. It is likely that continued examination of these processes will reveal new mechanisms of caspase regulation with implications well beyond control of apoptotic cell death.
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              Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle.

               Erich Nigg (1995)
              Passage through the cell cycle requires the successive activation of different cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). These enzymes are controlled by transient associations with cyclin regulatory subunits, binding of inhibitory polypeptides and reversible phosphorylation reactions. To promote progression towards DNA replication, CDK/cyclin complexes phosphorylate proteins required for the activation of genes involved in DNA synthesis, as well as components of the DNA replication machinery. Subsequently, a different set of CDK/cyclin complexes triggers the phosphorylation of numerous proteins to promote the profound structural reorganizations that accompany the entry of cells into mitosis. At present, much research is focused on elucidating the links between CDK/cyclin complexes and signal transduction pathways controlling cell growth, differentiation and death. In future, a better understanding of the cell cycle machinery and its deregulation during oncogenesis may provide novel opportunities for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer and other proliferation-related diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                12 June 2015
                : 9
                : 3017-3030
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of General Surgery, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Laboratory of General Surgery, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qian Dong, Department of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 2507 8838, Email dongqian71@ 123456163.com
                Ying-Bin Liu, Department of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 2507 7880, Email liuybphd@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-9-3017
                10.2147/DDDT.S84448
                4472077
                © 2015 Li et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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