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      Cell death: a review of the major forms of apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy

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      Cell Biology International
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d15764862e51">Cell death was once believed to be the result of one of two distinct processes, apoptosis (also known as programmed cell death) or necrosis (uncontrolled cell death); in recent years, however, several other forms of cell death have been discovered highlighting that a cell can die via a number of differing pathways. Apoptosis is characterised by a number of characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the cell, together with a number of enzyme-dependent biochemical processes. The result being the clearance of cells from the body, with minimal damage to surrounding tissues. Necrosis, however, is generally characterised to be the uncontrolled death of the cell, usually following a severe insult, resulting in spillage of the contents of the cell into surrounding tissues and subsequent damage thereof. Failure of apoptosis and the resultant accumulation of damaged cells in the body can result in various forms of cancer. An understanding of the pathways is therefore important in developing efficient chemotherapeutics. It has recently become clear that there exists a number of subtypes of apoptosis and that there is an overlap between apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge relating to the various forms of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, oncosis, pyroptosis and autophagy. This will provide researchers with a summary of the major forms of cell death and allow them to compare and contrast between them. </p>

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          Most cited references36

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          Chemotherapy drugs induce pyroptosis through caspase-3 cleavage of a Gasdermin

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            Death by design: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy.

            Apoptosis is the principal mechanism by which cells are physiologically eliminated in metazoan organisms. During apoptotic death, cells are neatly carved up by caspases and packaged into apoptotic bodies as a mechanism to avoid immune activation. Recently, necrosis, once thought of as simply a passive, unorganized way to die, has emerged as an alternate form of programmed cell death whose activation might have important biological consequences, including the induction of an inflammatory response. Autophagy has also been suggested as a possible mechanism for non-apoptotic death despite evidence from many species that autophagy represents a survival strategy in times of stress. Recent advances have helped to define the function of and mechanism for programmed necrosis and the role of autophagy in cell survival and suicide.
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              Necroptosis microenvironment directs lineage commitment in liver cancer

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Biology International
                Cell Biol Int
                Wiley
                1065-6995
                1095-8355
                April 25 2019
                June 2019
                April 25 2019
                June 2019
                : 43
                : 6
                : 582-592
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hertfordshire International College (HIC)Collage Lane Hatfield AL10 9AB UK
                Article
                10.1002/cbin.11137
                30958602
                8cb17a09-6eea-4449-be97-6a8cb84cf346
                © 2019

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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