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      Recent additions to the list of German sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta)

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      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Two tenthredinid sawfly species are newly recorded in Germany: Pristiphora krausi (Lacourt, 2006) and P. melagonia sp. nov. The latter is also recorded from Greece and Spain. These species belong to the Pristiphora depressa group, as confirmed by genetic data. Additional data are presented for seven other tenthredinid species which have only rarely been recorded in Germany and for which previously-published data are incomplete. Identification keys to the West Palaearctic species of Eurhadinoceraea and the Pristiphora depressa group are included. Other species of Symphyta, first recorded in Germany since the publication of the most recent checklist, are listed in a table, with references to literature which describes identification characters.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Identification of sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera, 'Symphyta') through DNA barcodes: successes and caveats.

          The 'Symphyta' is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5360 specimens of 'Symphyta', mainly adults, and 4362 sequences covering 1037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin. The utility of barcoding for species identification and taxonomy of 'Symphyta' is discussed on the basis of examples from each of the included families. A significant level of cryptic species diversity was apparent in many groups. Other attractive applications include the identification of immature stages without the need to rear them, community analyses based on metabarcoding of bulk samples and association of the sexes of adults.
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            The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)

            Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α), to include a fourth (NaK) and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms of Nematus Panzer, 1801: Craesus Leach, 1817, Hypolaepus W.F. Kirby, 1882, and Paranematus Zinovjev, 1978. Synonyms of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810: Diphadnus Hartig, 1837, Lygaeonematus Konow, 1890, Micronematus Konow, 1890, Gymnonychus Marlatt, 1896, Neopareophora MacGillivray, 1908, syn. n., Neotomostethus MacGillivray, 1908, Dineuridea Rohwer, 1912, Sala Ross, 1937, Pristola Ross, 1945, syn. n., Nepionema Benson, 1960, syn. n., Melastola Wong, 1968, syn. n., Sharliphora Wong, 1969, Oligonematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, Lygaeotus Liston, 1993, Lygaeophora Liston, 1993, and Pristicampus Zinovjev, 1993, syn. n. Varna Ross, 1937, syn. n. is treated as a synonym of Dineura Dahlbom 1835. Stauronematus Benson, 1953 is treated as a separate genus from Pristiphora. Names of 20 species-group taxa are junior secondary homonyms when combined with Euura. Replacement names are proposed for these. To facilitate the identification of Nematinae genera, we provide an illustrated key to the 31 extant genera of world Nematinae.
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              North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)

              North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810 are revised. Altogether, 90 species are treated, two of which are described as new: P.caraganae Vikberg & Prous, sp. n. from Finland and P.dedeara Liston & Prous, sp. n. from Germany. Host plant of P.caraganae is Caraganaarborescens Lam. Pristiphoradasiphorae (Zinovjev, 1993) (previously known from East Palaearctic) and P.cadma Wong & Ross, 1960 (previously known from North America) are recorded for the first time from Europe. Nematusnigricans Eversmann, 1847 [= Pristiphoranigricans (Eversmann, 1847), comb. n. ], N.breviusculus Eversmann, 1847 [= Euuramelanocephalus (Hartig, 1837)], and N.caudalis Eversmann, 1847 [= E.caudalis (Eversmann, 1847), comb. n. ] are removed from synonymy with P.pallidiventris (Fallén, 1808), N.paralellus Hartig, 1840 [= P.paralella (Hartig, 1840), comb. n. ] is removed from synonymy with P.bufo (Brischke, 1883), and P.mesatlantica Lacourt, 1976 is removed from synonymy with P.insularis Rohwer, 1910. The following 29 new synonymies are proposed: P.nigropuncticeps Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P.albitibia (Costa, 1859); Lygaeonematuskarvoneni Lindqvist, 1952, syn. n. with P.alpestris (Konow, 1903); P. (P.) anivskiensis Haris, 2006, syn. n. with P.appendiculata (Hartig, 1837); Nematuscanaliculatus Hartig, 1840, syn. n with P.carinata (Hartig, 1837); P.nigrogroenblomi Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P.cincta Newman, 1837; Tenthredoflavipes Zetterstedt, 1838, syn. n. , Nematuscongener W.F. Kirby, 1882, syn. n. , and P.thomsoni Lindqvist, 1953, syn. n. with P.dochmocera (Thomson, 1871); P.atrata Lindqvist, 1975, syn. n. with P.friesei (Konow, 1904); P.gelida Wong, 1968, syn. n. with P.frigida (Boheman, 1865); Pachynematusnigricorpus Takagi, 1931, syn. n. with P.laricis (Hartig, 1837); Nematus (Pikonema) piceae Zhelochovtsev in Zhelochovtsev and Zinovjev, 1988, syn. n. and P. (P.) hoverlaensis Haris, 2001, syn. n. with P.leucopodia (Hartig, 1837); Mesoneuraarctica Lindqvist, 1959, syn. n. , Pachynematusincisus Lindqvist, 1970, syn. n. , Pachynematusintermedius Verzhutskii, 1974, syn. n. , and P.mongololaricis Haris, 2003, syn. n. with P.malaisei (Lindqvist, 1952); Nematusanderschi Zaddach, 1876, syn. n. , P.inocreata Konow, 1902, syn. n. , and P.discolor Lindqvist, 1975, syn. n. with P.nigricans (Eversmann, 1847); Lygaeonematustenuicornis Lindqvist, 1955, syn. n. with P.paralella (Hartig, 1840); Lygaeonematusconcolor Lindqvist, 1952, syn. n. with P.pseudocoactula (Lindqvist, 1952); P.flavipicta Lindqvist, 1975, syn. n. , P.flavopleura Haris, 2002, syn. n. , P.mongoloexigua Haris, 2002, syn. n. , and P.mongolofausta Haris, 2003, syn. n. with P.punctifrons (Thomson, 1871); P.listoni Lacourt, 1998, syn. n. with P.sootryeni Lindqvist, 1955; P.gaunitzi Lindqvist, 1968, syn. n. with P.testacea (Jurine, 1807); and Nematusbreviusculus Eversmann, 1847, syn. n. with Euuramelanocephalus (Hartig, 1837). The valid name of Pachynematus (Pikonema) carpathiensis Haris, 2001 is Nematinuscarpathiensis (Haris, 2001) comb. n. Lectotypes are designated for 43 taxa. An illustrated electronic key made with Lucid and a traditional dichotomous key are provided to facilitate identification of the species. Species belonging to the carinata (previously Lygaeotus ), micronematica (previously Lygaeophora ), and rufipes (also known as thalictri or aquilegiae ) groups are not keyed to the species level, because additional research is needed to delimit the species more reliably in these groups. Phylogeny of Pristiphora is reconstructed based on one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (NaK and TPI) genes. Remarkably, around 50–60% (depending on the exclusion or inclusion of the carinata , micronematica , and rufipes groups) of the species cannot be reliably identified based on COI barcodes. Limited data from nuclear genes indicate a better identification potential (about 20% remain problematic).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                July 21 2020
                July 21 2020
                : 67
                : 2
                : 127-139
                Article
                10.3897/dez.67.54002
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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