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      Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

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          Abstract

          This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

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          Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range

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            Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

            Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
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              Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications.

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Printable Functional Nanomaterials and Printed Electronics, School of Printing and Packaging, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Korea
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Technol Adv Mater
                Sci Technol Adv Mater
                TSTA
                Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
                Taylor & Francis
                1468-6996
                1878-5514
                April 2015
                28 April 2015
                : 16
                : 2
                TSTA11661256
                10.1088/1468-6996/16/2/023501
                5036481
                © 2015 National Institute for Materials Science

                Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

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                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 51171132
                Award ID: 51201115
                Award ID: 51471121
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