Development of the cerebral wall is characterized by partially overlapping histogenetic events. However, little is known with regards to when, where, and how growing axonal pathways interact with progenitor cell lineages in the proliferative zones of the human fetal cerebrum. We analyzed the developmental continuity and spatial distribution of the axonal sagittal strata (SS) and their relationship with proliferative zones in a series of human brains (8–40 post-conceptional weeks; PCW) by comparing histological, histochemical, and immunocytochemical data with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between 8.5 and 11 PCW, thalamocortical fibers from the intermediate zone (IZ) were initially dispersed throughout the subventricular zone (SVZ), while sizeable axonal “invasion” occurred between 12.5 and 15 PCW followed by callosal fibers which “delaminated” the ventricular zone-inner SVZ from the outer SVZ (OSVZ). During midgestation, the SS extensively invaded the OSVZ, separating cell bands, and a new multilaminar axonal-cellular compartment (MACC) was formed. Preterm period reveals increased complexity of the MACC in terms of glial architecture and the thinning of proliferative bands. The addition of associative fibers and the formation of the centrum semiovale separated the SS from the subplate. In vivo MRI of the occipital SS indicates a “triplet” structure of alternating hypointense and hyperintense bands. Our results highlighted the developmental continuity of sagittally oriented “corridors” of projection, commissural and associative fibers, and histogenetic interaction with progenitors, neurons, and glia. Histogenetical changes in the MACC, and consequently, delineation of the SS on MRI, may serve as a relevant indicator of white matter microstructural integrity in the developing brain.