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      Interactive histogenesis of axonal strata and proliferative zones in the human fetal cerebral wall


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          Development of the cerebral wall is characterized by partially overlapping histogenetic events. However, little is known with regards to when, where, and how growing axonal pathways interact with progenitor cell lineages in the proliferative zones of the human fetal cerebrum. We analyzed the developmental continuity and spatial distribution of the axonal sagittal strata (SS) and their relationship with proliferative zones in a series of human brains (8–40 post-conceptional weeks; PCW) by comparing histological, histochemical, and immunocytochemical data with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between 8.5 and 11 PCW, thalamocortical fibers from the intermediate zone (IZ) were initially dispersed throughout the subventricular zone (SVZ), while sizeable axonal “invasion” occurred between 12.5 and 15 PCW followed by callosal fibers which “delaminated” the ventricular zone-inner SVZ from the outer SVZ (OSVZ). During midgestation, the SS extensively invaded the OSVZ, separating cell bands, and a new multilaminar axonal-cellular compartment (MACC) was formed. Preterm period reveals increased complexity of the MACC in terms of glial architecture and the thinning of proliferative bands. The addition of associative fibers and the formation of the centrum semiovale separated the SS from the subplate. In vivo MRI of the occipital SS indicates a “triplet” structure of alternating hypointense and hyperintense bands. Our results highlighted the developmental continuity of sagittally oriented “corridors” of projection, commissural and associative fibers, and histogenetic interaction with progenitors, neurons, and glia. Histogenetical changes in the MACC, and consequently, delineation of the SS on MRI, may serve as a relevant indicator of white matter microstructural integrity in the developing brain.

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          How the immense population of neurons that constitute the human cerebral neocortex is generated from progenitors lining the cerebral ventricle and then distributed to appropriate layers of distinctive cytoarchitectonic areas can be explained by the radial unit hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, the ependymal layer of the embryonic cerebral ventricle consists of proliferative units that provide a proto-map of prospective cytoarchitectonic areas. The output of the proliferative units is translated via glial guides to the expanding cortex in the form of ontogenetic columns, whose final number for each area can be modified through interaction with afferent input. Data obtained through various advanced neurobiological techniques, including electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, [3H]thymidine and receptor autoradiography, retrovirus gene transfer, neural transplants, and surgical or genetic manipulation of cortical development, furnish new details about the kinetics of cell proliferation, their lineage relationships, and phenotypic expression that favor this hypothesis. The radial unit model provides a framework for understanding cerebral evolution, epigenetic regulation of the parcellation of cytoarchitectonic areas, and insight into the pathogenesis of certain cortical disorders in humans.
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            In 1970 the Boulder Committee described the basic principles of the development of the CNS, derived from observations on the human embryonic cerebrum. Since then, numerous studies have significantly advanced our knowledge of the timing, sequence and complexity of developmental events, and revealed important inter-species differences. We review current data on the development of the human cerebral cortex and update the classical model of how the structure that makes us human is formed.
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              A role for intermediate radial glia in the tangential expansion of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

              The cerebral cortex of large mammals undergoes massive surface area expansion and folding during development. Specific mechanisms to orchestrate the growth of the cortex in surface area rather than in thickness are likely to exist, but they have not been identified. Analyzing multiple species, we have identified a specialized type of progenitor cell that is exclusive to mammals with a folded cerebral cortex, which we named intermediate radial glia cell (IRGC). IRGCs express Pax6 but not Tbr2, have a radial fiber contacting the pial surface but not the ventricular surface, and are found in both the inner subventricular zone and outer subventricular zone (OSVZ). We find that IRGCs are massively generated in the OSVZ, thus augmenting the numbers of radial fibers. Fanning out of this expanding radial fiber scaffold promotes the tangential dispersion of radially migrating neurons, allowing for the growth in surface area of the cortical sheet. Accordingly, the tangential expansion of particular cortical regions was preceded by high proliferation in the underlying OSVZ, whereas the experimental reduction of IRGCs impaired the tangential dispersion of neurons and resulted in a smaller cortical surface. Thus, the generation of IRGCs plays a key role in the tangential expansion of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

                Author and article information

                +385(01) 4596 902 , ikostov@hiim.hr
                Brain Struct Funct
                Brain Struct Funct
                Brain Structure & Function
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                9 August 2018
                9 August 2018
                : 223
                : 9
                : 3919-3943
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0657 4636, GRID grid.4808.4, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Centar of Research Excellence for Basic, Clinical and Translational Neuroscience, , University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, ; Zagreb, Croatia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0657 4636, GRID grid.4808.4, Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, , University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, ; Zagreb, Croatia
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0657 4636, GRID grid.4808.4, Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, , University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, ; Zagreb, Croatia
                Author information
                © © The Author(s) 2018 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                : 26 March 2018
                : 18 July 2018
                Funded by: Croatian Science Fundation
                Award ID: CSF-IP-09-2014-4517
                Award ID: CSF-DOK-10-2015
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: European Regional Development Fund, Operational Programme Competitiveness and Cohesion
                Award ID: No.KK., CoRE - Neuro
                Original Article
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

                sagittal axonal strata,fetal brain,proliferative and migratory neurons,glia,white matter integrity


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