Oxidative stress, a predominant cause of apoptosis cascades triggered in neurodegenerative disorders, has been regarded as a critical inducement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Gou Teng-San (GTS) is a traditional Chinese herbs preparation commonly utilized to alleviate cognitive dysfunction and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GTS40, an active fraction of GTS, on H 2O 2-induced oxidative damage and identify the potential active ingredients. Our results revealed that GTS40 exhibited radical scavenging activity, elevated cell viability, decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) in H 2O 2-treated PC12 cells. In addition, GTS40 blocked the apoptotic cascade by reversing the imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibiting the activity of caspase-3. Furthermore, an HPLC-QTOFMS method was developed to characterize major chemical constituents in GTS40. Our results revealed twenty-seven identified or tentatively characterized compounds through comparing their retention time ( t R) and MS spectra with reference standards. These results suggested that GTS40 was a promising active fraction that may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorders.