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Epidemiological Characteristics of Work-Related Ocular Trauma in Southwest Region of China

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      Purpose: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of work-related eye injury in representative southwest region of China. Methods: Patients with eye injuries treated at the Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 were included in the current study. All patients completed a comprehensive examination and interview. Demographic characteristics and injury details were recorded. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) were used. Results: The average age of eye injury patients was 37.52 years and the majority were male. Among the 1055 total patients, approximately 42.9% of the injuries were work-related. The highest proportion of occupational eye trauma was observed in the group between 36 and 45 years of age. Occupational ocular trauma occurred more frequently in summer, with most from 16:00 to 18:00. Metal was the most common injury cause. Foreign body on external eye was the most common diagnosis. Workers in the manufacturing industry without pre-work safety training or eye protection were far more likely to suffer from occupational ocular trauma than those with training and protection. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the epidemiological characteristics of occupational ocular trauma in southwest region of China. The current findings might be considered as a baseline for future research on regional work-related eye injuries. Our findings will provide valuable information for further development of preventive strategies.

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      Most cited references 24

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      The Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology system (BETT).

      To evaluate the international eye injury scene and design a standardized terminology for mechanical eye injuries. Surveys of practicing ophthalmologists and an extensive review of the international ocular trauma literature. Development of the Birmingham Trauma Terminology (BETT) using a logic-based approach. BETT always uses the entire globe as the tissue of reference. Its well-defined terms encompass all types of mechanical eye injury. A one-to-one relationship exists between terms and clinical conditions. BETT provides an unambiguous, consistent, simple, and comprehensive system to describe any type of mechanical globe trauma. Endorsed by several societies and peer-reviewed journals as the standardized international language of ocular traumatology, BETT is expected to become the preferred terminology for categorizing eye injuries in daily clinical practice.
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        Characteristics and outcomes of work-related open globe injuries.

        To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated for open globe injuries sustained at work and to compare these results to patients injured outside of work. Retrospective chart review of 812 consecutive patients with open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1999 and 2008. A total of 146 patients with open globe injuries sustained at work were identified and their characteristics and outcomes were compared with the rest of the patients in the database. Of the patients injured at work, 98% were men, and the average age of the patients was 35.8 years (17-72 years). The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma (56%); 38 patients examined had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB). Nine work-related open globe injuries resulted in enucleation. There was a higher incidence of IOFBs (P = .0001) and penetrating injuries (P = .0005) in patients injured at work. Both the preoperative (P = .0001) and final best-corrected visual acuity (P = .0001) was better in the work-related group. The final visual acuity was better than 20/200 in 74.1% of cases of work-related open globe injuries. However, there was no difference observed in the rate of enucleations (P = .4). Work-related injuries can cause significant morbidity in a young population of patients. Based on average patient follow-up and final visual acuity, those injured at work do at least as well as, if not potentially better than, those with open globe injuries sustained outside of work. While the statistically higher rate of IOFB in the work population is not surprising, it does emphasize the importance of strict adherence to the use of eye protection in the workplace. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          Epidemiology of lifetime work-related eye injuries in the U.S. population associated with one or more lost days of work.

          Eye injuries are one of the most common types of work-related injuries. This study examined the lifetime prevalence rate of eye injuries at work and associated factors in the general population of the United States. The data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for individuals aged 18 years or older (n = 28,913). Lifetime prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries were determined by different factors, calculated as the percentage of the weighted number of people who reported to have an eye injury at work divided by the weighted total number of people in the corresponding category. The overall lifetime prevalence rate of work-related eye injuries was 4.4%. The lifetime age-specific prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries ranged from 2%, 3.8%, 4.9%, 6.0%, 5.4%, 4.0%, and 3.1% for ages 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+ years, respectively, with the highest rate in the age of 45-54 years. Men had a more than four-times higher rate of eye injury at work than women. Workers with less than a high-school education, non-Hispanic whites, self-employed, and in the midwest region were more likely to experience eye injuries (all p-values < 0.001). Occupations of precision production, transportation, or farming, and industries of mining or construction also increased the risk of eye injuries at work. Findings of the current study underscore the need of education and prevention program on eye protection at workplaces, targeting male workers, especially those who have a low education level and are self-employed.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, The Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing, 69 Jia Ling Road, Chongqing 400700, China; E-Mail: mm198222@
            [2 ]Department of Urology, The Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing, 69 Jia Ling Road, Chongqing 400700, China
            Author notes
            [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: zhangjie320320@ ; Tel.: +86-1569-6107-998.
            Role: Academic Editor
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            19 August 2015
            August 2015
            : 12
            : 8
            : 9864-9875
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (


            Public health

            occupational health, epidemiology, ocular trauma, work-related, eye injuries


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