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      Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study

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          Abstract

          The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.

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          Most cited references 19

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          A review of differences between basal ganglia and cerebellar control of movements as revealed by functional imaging studies.

           M Jueptner,  C Weiller (1998)
          The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in the control of movements is unclear. We summarize results from three groups of PET studies of regional CBF. The results show a double dissociation between (i) selection of movements, which induces differential effects in the basal ganglia but not the cerebellum, and (ii) sensory information processing, which involves the cerebellum but not the basal ganglia. The first set of studies concerned motor learning of a sequence of finger movements; there was a shift of activation in the anterior-posterior direction of the basal ganglia which paralleled changes in the motor areas of the frontal cortex. During new learning, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and striatum (caudate nucleus and anterior putamen) were activated. When subjects had to select movements, the premotor cortex and mid-putamen were activated. With automatic (overlearned) movements, the sensorimotor cortex and posterior putamen were activated. When subjects paid attention to overlearned actions, activation shifted back to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and striatum. The cerebellum was not activated when subjects made new decisions, attended to their actions or selected movements. These results demonstrate components of basal ganglia-(thalamo)-cortical loops in humans. According to earlier studies in animals we propose that the basal ganglia may be concerned with selecting movements or the selection of appropriate muscles to perform a movement selected by cortical areas (e.g. premotor cortex). Secondly, a visuomotor co-ordination task was examined. In the absence of visual control over arm movements, subjects were required to use a computer mouse to either generate new lines or to re-trace lines on a computer screen. The neocerebellum (hemispheres of the posterior lobe, cerebellar nuclei and cerebellar vermis), not the basal ganglia, was more engaged when lines were re-traced (compared with new line generation). Animal experiments have shown that error detection (deviation from given lines) and correction occurs during line re-tracing but not line generation. Our data suggest that the neocerebellum (not the basal ganglia) is involved in monitoring and optimizing movements using sensory (proprioceptive) feedback. Thirdly, the relative contribution of sensory information processing to the signal during active/passive execution of a motor task (flexion and extension of the elbow) was examined; it was found that 80-90% of the neocerebellar signal could be attributed to sensory information processing. The basal ganglia were not involved in sensory information processing. They may be concerned with movement/ muscle selection (efferent motor component); the neocerebellum may be concerned with monitoring the outcome (afferent sensory component) and optimizing movements using sensory (feedback) information.
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            Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study.

            1. Using positron emission tomography and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as an index of cerebral activity we investigated the central processing of motor preparation in 13 healthy volunteers. 2. We used a motor reaction time paradigm with visual cues as preparatory and response signals. A preparatory stimulus (PS) provided either full, partial, or no information regarding two variables of a forthcoming right finger movement: finger type (index or little finger) and movement direction (abduction or elevation). After a variable delay period, a response stimulus (RS) prompted the movement. A condition was also tested in which the subject could freely select any of the four possible movements during the preparation period ("free" condition). The timing of events was designed to emphasize the motor preparation phase over the motor execution component during the scanning time of 1 min. 3. Distinct preparatory processes, which depended on the information contained in the PS, were demonstrated by significant differences in reaction time between conditions. The reaction time was shorter in the "full" and free conditions, intermediate in the two partial information conditions ("finger" and "direction"), and longer when no preparatory information was available ("none" condition). Conversely, movement time and movement amplitude were similar between conditions, establishing the constancy of the motor executive output. 4. In comparison with a "rest" condition, which had matched visual inputs, the different conditions of motor preparation were associated with increased rCBF in a common set of cerebral regions: the contralateral frontal cortex (sensorimotor, premotor, cingulate, and supplementary motor cortex), the contralateral parietal association cortex (anterior and posterior regions), the ipsilateral cerebellum, the contralateral basal ganglia, and the thalamus. This observation substantiates the participation of those cerebral structures in the preparation for movement. Furthermore, the similarity of the activated areas among the different conditions compared with the rest condition suggests a single anatomic substrate for motor preparation, independent of the movement information context. 5. Differing amounts of movement information contained in the PS affected rCBF changes in some cerebral regions. In particular, the rCBF in the anterior parietal cortex (Brodmann's area 40) was significantly larger in each of the full, finger, and direction conditions, individually, compared with the none condition. This observation supports the hypothesis that the anterior parietal association cortex plays a major role in the use of visual instructions contained in the PS for partial or complete preparation to perform a motor act. On the other hand, the posterior parietal association cortex (Brodmann's area 7) was more activated in the finger, direction, and none conditions than in the full condition. This increased activity with restricted advance information suggests that the posterior region of the parietal cortex is concerned with correct movement selection on the basis of enhanced spatial attention to the RS. 6. In contrast with the parietal cortex, the secondary motor areas (i.e, premotor cortex, cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area) showed similar activity regardless of the degree of preparation allowed by the advance visual information. Thus the parietal cortex may play a more crucial role than the secondary motor areas in integrating visual information in preparation for movement. 7. The effect on brain activity of the internal (self-generated) versus the external (cued) mode of movement selection was assessed by comparing the free and full conditions, the preparatory component being matched in the two conditions. The anterior part of the supplementary motor area was the main area preferentially involved in the internal selection of movement, independently of motor preparation processes.
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              Laterality effects in selective attention to threat after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at the prefrontal cortex in female subjects.

              Recently, several experiments have indicated that the left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC) are differently involved in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the left and right PFC in selective attention to angry faces by using a pictorial emotional Stroop task. Slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the left and right PFC of 10 female subjects for 15 min on separate days. Results showed a significant effect of stimulation position: right PFC rTMS resulted in selective attention towards angry faces, whereas left PFC rTMS resulted in selective attention away from angry faces. This finding is in accordance with theoretical accounts of the neural implementation of approach and withdrawal systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                11 July 2014
                2014
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of regenerative medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute , Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Florence, Italy
                [2 ]Department of neuro psycho physical optimization, Rinaldi Fontani Institute , Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Florence, Italy
                [3 ]Institute of Radiology, University of Cagliari , 09042 Monserrato, Italy
                Author notes
                Article
                srep05668
                10.1038/srep05668
                4092330
                Copyright © 2014, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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