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      Colonic Expression of Genes Encoding Inflammatory Mediators and Gelatinases During Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Conventional Infant Mice

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          Abstract

          Within 1 week following peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection, infant mice develop acute enteritis resolving thereafter. We here assessed colonic expression profiles of mediators belonging to the IL-23/IL-22/IL-18 axis and of matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 at day 6 post C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Whereas the pathogen readily colonized the intestines of infant IL-18 –/– mice only, colonic mucin-2 mRNA, a pivotal mucus constituent, was downregulated in IL-22 –/– mice and accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17A, and IL-1β. Furthermore, in both naive and infected IL-22 –/– mice, colonic expression of IL-23p19 and IL-18 was lower as compared to wildtype mice, whereas, conversely, colonic IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in IL-18 –/– and colonic IL-18 expression lower in IL-23p19 –/– as compared to wildtype mice. Moreover, colonic expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in IL-22 –/– as compared to wildtype mice at day 6 postinfection. In conclusion, mediators belonging of the IL-23/IL-22/IL-18 axis as well as the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mediating campylobacteriosis of infant mice in a differentially regulated fashion.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation.

          T helper 17 (Th17) cells belong to a recently identified T helper subset, in addition to the traditional Th1 and Th2 subsets. These cells are characterized as preferential producers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. The receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 are broadly expressed on various epithelial tissues. The effector cytokines of Th17 cells, therefore, mediate the crucial crosstalk between immune system and tissues, and play indispensable roles in tissue immunity.
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            Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

            Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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              Colorectal cancer in mice genetically deficient in the mucin Muc2.

              The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a layer of mucus comprised of highly glycosylated proteins called mucins. To evaluate the importance of mucin in intestinal carcinogenesis, we constructed mice genetically deficient in Muc2, the most abundant secreted gastrointestinal mucin. Muc2-/- mice displayed aberrant intestinal crypt morphology and altered cell maturation and migration. Most notably, the mice frequently developed adenomas in the small intestine that progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma, as well as rectal tumors. Thus, Muc2 is involved in the suppression of colorectal cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                25 April 2016
                24 June 2016
                : 6
                : 2
                : 137-146
                Affiliations
                Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Charité – University Medicine Berlin, CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, FEM, Garystr. 5, D-14195 Berlin, Germany; +49-30-450524318; markus.heimesaat@ 123456charite.de

                Financial disclosure and grant support

                This work was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) to A.F., S.B., and U.B.G. (SFB633, TP A7); M.M.H. (SFB633, TP B6); and A.E.K. and U.G. (SFB633, Immuco), and from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to S.B. (TP1.1).

                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the article.

                Competing interests

                The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2016.00009
                4936336
                27429796
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Article

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