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      Colonic Expression of Genes Encoding Inflammatory Mediators and Gelatinases During Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Conventional Infant Mice

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          Within 1 week following peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection, infant mice develop acute enteritis resolving thereafter. We here assessed colonic expression profiles of mediators belonging to the IL-23/IL-22/IL-18 axis and of matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 at day 6 post C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Whereas the pathogen readily colonized the intestines of infant IL-18 –/– mice only, colonic mucin-2 mRNA, a pivotal mucus constituent, was downregulated in IL-22 –/– mice and accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17A, and IL-1β. Furthermore, in both naive and infected IL-22 –/– mice, colonic expression of IL-23p19 and IL-18 was lower as compared to wildtype mice, whereas, conversely, colonic IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in IL-18 –/– and colonic IL-18 expression lower in IL-23p19 –/– as compared to wildtype mice. Moreover, colonic expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in IL-22 –/– as compared to wildtype mice at day 6 postinfection. In conclusion, mediators belonging of the IL-23/IL-22/IL-18 axis as well as the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mediating campylobacteriosis of infant mice in a differentially regulated fashion.

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          Most cited references 37

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          T helper 17 (Th17) cells belong to a recently identified T helper subset, in addition to the traditional Th1 and Th2 subsets. These cells are characterized as preferential producers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. The receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 are broadly expressed on various epithelial tissues. The effector cytokines of Th17 cells, therefore, mediate the crucial crosstalk between immune system and tissues, and play indispensable roles in tissue immunity.
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            The extracellular secreted mucus and the cell surface glycocalyx prevent infection by the vast numbers of microorganisms that live in the healthy gut. Mucin glycoproteins are the major component of these barriers. In this Review, we describe the components of the secreted and cell surface mucosal barriers and the evidence that they form an effective barricade against potential pathogens. However, successful enteric pathogens have evolved strategies to circumvent these barriers. We discuss the interactions between enteric pathogens and mucins, and the mechanisms that these pathogens use to disrupt and avoid mucosal barriers. In addition, we describe dynamic alterations in the mucin barrier that are driven by host innate and adaptive immune responses to infection.
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              Innate lymphoid cells drive IL-23 dependent innate intestinal pathology

              The key role of IL-23 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders is supported by the identification of IL-23R susceptibility alleles associated with IBD, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. IL-23 driven inflammation has primarily been linked to the actions of Th17 cells 1 . Somewhat overlooked, IL-23 also has inflammatory effects on innate immune cells 2 and can drive T cell- independent colitis. However the downstream cellular and molecular pathways involved in this innate intestinal inflammatory response are poorly characterized. Here we show that bacteria-driven innate colitis is associated with increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production in the colon. Stimulation of colonic leukocytes with IL-23 induced IL-17 and IFN-γ production exclusively by innate lymphoid cells expressing Thy1, SCA-1, RORγt and IL-23R and these cells markedly accumulated in the inflamed colon. Importantly, IL-23 responsive innate intestinal cells are also a feature of T-cell dependent models of colitis. The transcription factor RORγt, which controls IL-23R expression, plays a functional role as Ror−/−Rag−/− mice failed to develop innate colitis. Lastly, depletion of Thy1+ innate lymphoid cells completely abrogated acute and chronic innate colitis. These results identify a novel IL-23 responsive innate lymphoid population that mediates intestinal immune pathology and may therefore represent a target in IBD.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                25 April 2016
                24 June 2016
                : 6
                : 2
                : 137-146
                Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Charité – University Medicine Berlin, CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, FEM, Garystr. 5, D-14195 Berlin, Germany; +49-30-450524318; markus.heimesaat@

                Financial disclosure and grant support

                This work was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) to A.F., S.B., and U.B.G. (SFB633, TP A7); M.M.H. (SFB633, TP B6); and A.E.K. and U.G. (SFB633, Immuco), and from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to S.B. (TP1.1).

                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the article.

                Competing interests

                The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 10
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