Objective Currently, the therapeutic effect and outcomes of US-PCD in patients with liver abscess and septic shock remain unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (US-PCD) on the prognosis of patients with liver abscess complicated with septic shock. Method We retrieved and assessed the data of 120 patients with liver abscess complicated with septic shock diagnosed at our hospital from January 2019 to March 2021. The patients underwent US-PCD in the observation group or conventional surgical incision and drainage in the control group. After treatment, we determined the levels of liver function indicators alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF- α in serum using ELISA on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, and 6. The postoperative body temperature recovery, peripheral white blood cell count recovery, extubation, postoperative length of stay, and complications were recorded, with a 12-month follow-up to calculate their survival rate. Results After treatment, the ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and ALP levels and inflammatory factor levels in the two groups were gradually reduced over time and returned to the normal range with a better recovery trend in the observation group. US-PCD was associated with better postoperative body temperature recovery, peripheral white blood cell count recovery, shorter extubation time, hospital stay, lower postoperative rate, and a higher survival rate. Conclusion US-PCD may be effective in treating liver abscess and can significantly improve the prognosis of patients.