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      Arsenene Nanodots with Selective Killing Effects and their Low‐Dose Combination with ß‐Elemene for Cancer Therapy

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          Drug repurposing: progress, challenges and recommendations

          Given the high attrition rates, substantial costs and slow pace of new drug discovery and development, repurposing of 'old' drugs to treat both common and rare diseases is increasingly becoming an attractive proposition because it involves the use of de-risked compounds, with potentially lower overall development costs and shorter development timelines. Various data-driven and experimental approaches have been suggested for the identification of repurposable drug candidates; however, there are also major technological and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed. In this Review, we present approaches used for drug repurposing (also known as drug repositioning), discuss the challenges faced by the repurposing community and recommend innovative ways by which these challenges could be addressed to help realize the full potential of drug repurposing.
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            Clinical development and potential of photothermal and photodynamic therapies for cancer

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              Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy.

              The regulation of oxidative stress is an important factor in both tumour development and responses to anticancer therapies. Many signalling pathways that are linked to tumorigenesis can also regulate the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through direct or indirect mechanisms. High ROS levels are generally detrimental to cells, and the redox status of cancer cells usually differs from that of normal cells. Because of metabolic and signalling aberrations, cancer cells exhibit elevated ROS levels. The observation that this is balanced by an increased antioxidant capacity suggests that high ROS levels may constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis. However, ROS can also promote tumour formation by inducing DNA mutations and pro-oncogenic signalling pathways. These contradictory effects have important implications for potential anticancer strategies that aim to modulate levels of ROS. In this Review, we address the controversial role of ROS in tumour development and in responses to anticancer therapies, and elaborate on the idea that targeting the antioxidant capacity of tumour cells can have a positive therapeutic impact.

                Author and article information

                Advanced Materials
                Adv. Mater.
                July 26 2021
                : 2102054
                [1 ]Cixi Institute of Biomedical Engineering CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices Zhejiang Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences Ningbo 315201 China
                [2 ]University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049 China
                [3 ]Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston MA 02115 USA
                [4 ]Department of Medical Oncology Dana‐Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School Boston MA 02215 USA
                [5 ]College of Pharmacy School of Medicine Hangzhou Normal University Hangzhou Zhejiang 311121 China
                [6 ]John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University Cambridge MA 02138 USA
                [7 ]The First Clinical College of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine 138 Xianlin Avenue Nanjing Jiangsu 210023 China
                [8 ]Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Prevention and Treatment of Tumor 138 Xianlin Avenue Nanjing Jiangsu 210023 China
                © 2021





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