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RAD59 and RAD1 cooperate in translocation formation by single-strand annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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      Studies in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have demonstrated that a substantial fraction of double-strand break repair following acute radiation exposure involves homologous recombination between repetitive genomic elements. We have previously described an assay in S. cerevisiae that allows us to model how repair of multiple breaks leads to the formation of chromosomal translocations by single-strand annealing (SSA) and found that Rad59, a paralog of the single-stranded DNA annealing protein Rad52, is critically important in this process. We have constructed several rad59 missense alleles to study its function more closely. Characterization of these mutants revealed proportional defects in both translocation formation and spontaneous direct-repeat recombination, which is also thought to occur by SSA. Combining the rad59 missense alleles with a null allele of RAD1, which encodes a subunit of a nuclease required for the removal of non-homologous tails from annealed intermediates, substantially suppressed the low frequency of translocations observed in rad1-null single mutants. These data suggest that at least one role of Rad59 in translocation formation by SSA is supporting the machinery required for cleavage of non-homologous tails.

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      Most cited references 49

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      A new efficient gene disruption cassette for repeated use in budding yeast.

      The dominant kanr marker gene plays an important role in gene disruption experiments in budding yeast, as this marker can be used in a variety of yeast strains lacking the conventional yeast markers. We have developed a loxP-kanMX-loxP gene disruption cassette, which combines the advantages of the heterologous kanr marker with those from the Cre-lox P recombination system. This disruption cassette integrates with high efficiency via homologous integration at the correct genomic locus (routinely 70%). Upon expression of the Cre recombinase the kanMX module is excised by an efficient recombination between the loxP sites, leaving behind a single loxP site at the chromosomal locus. This system allows repeated use of the kanr marker gene and will be of great advantage for the functional analysis of gene families.
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        Copy number variation (CNV) is a source of genetic diversity in humans. Numerous CNVs are being identified with various genome analysis platforms, including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms, and next-generation sequencing. CNV formation occurs by both recombination-based and replication-based mechanisms and de novo locus-specific mutation rates appear much higher for CNVs than for SNPs. By various molecular mechanisms, including gene dosage, gene disruption, gene fusion, position effects, etc., CNVs can cause Mendelian or sporadic traits, or be associated with complex diseases. However, CNV can also represent benign polymorphic variants. CNVs, especially gene duplication and exon shuffling, can be a predominant mechanism driving gene and genome evolution.
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          A positive selection for mutants lacking orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase activity in yeast: 5-fluoro-orotic acid resistance.

          Mutations at the URA3 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be obtained by a positive selection. Wild-type strains of yeast (or ura3 mutant strains containing a plasmid-borne URA3+ gene) are unable to grow on medium containing the pyrimidine analog 5-fluoro-orotic acid, whereas ura3- mutants grow normally. This selection, based on the loss of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase activity seems applicable to a variety of eucaryotic and procaryotic cells.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 USA
            [2 ]The Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010 USA
            Author notes

            Communicated by M. Kupiec.

            +1-626-2564673 , +1-626-9305463 ,
            Curr Genet
            Current Genetics
            Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            11 December 2009
            11 December 2009
            February 2010
            : 56
            : 1
            : 87-100
            © The Author(s) 2009
            Research Article
            Custom metadata
            © Springer-Verlag 2010


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