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      Ursane-type triterpene oligoglycosides with anti-hepatosteatosis and anti-hyperlipidemic activity from the leaves of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

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          Yerba Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis): a comprehensive review on chemistry, health implications, and technological considerations.

          Yerba Mate tea, an infusion made from the leaves of the tree Ilex paraguariensis, is a widely consumed nonalcoholic beverage in South America which is gaining rapid introduction into the world market, either as tea itself or as ingredient in formulated foods or dietary supplements. The indigenous people have used it for centuries as a social and medicinal beverage. Yerba Mate has been shown to be hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective, central nervous system stimulant, diuretic, and to benefit the cardiovascular system. It has also been suggested for obesity management. Yerba Mate protects DNA from oxidation and in vitro low-density lipoprotein lipoperoxidation and has a high antioxidant capacity. It has also been reported that Yerba Mate tea is associated to both the prevention and the cause of some types of cancers. Yerba Mate has gained public attention outside of South America, namely the United States and Europe, and research on this tea has been expanding. This review presents the usage, chemistry, biological activities, health effects, and some technological considerations for processing of Yerba Mate tea. Furthermore, it assesses in a concise and comprehensive way the potential of Ilex paraguariensis as a source of biological compounds for the nutraceutical industry.
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            Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with insulin resistance.

            Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia, but some patients have normal glucose tolerance or normal weight. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance that is independent of diabetes and obesity. We measured anthropometric and metabolic variables in 46 patients with chronically elevated serum aminotransferase levels, "bright liver" on ultrasound scan, and normal glucose tolerance. Indexes of insulin resistance and secretion were determined using the homeostasis model assessment method. They were compared with 92 normal subjects who were matched for age and sex. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were characterized by fasting and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, postload hypoglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Insulin resistance [odds ratio (OR) = 15 per percent increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0 to 70], fasting triglyceride level (OR = 3.1 per mmol/liter increase, 95% CI: 1.1 to 8.9), 180-minute blood glucose level (OR = 4.3 per mmol/ liter decrease, 95% CI: 1.6 to 12), and average insulin concentration in response to oral glucose (OR = 3.0 per 100 pmol/liter increase, 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2) were independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The exclusion of overweight and obese subjects did not change the results. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia even in lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Genetic factors that reduce insulin sensitivity and increase serum triglyceride levels may be responsible for its development.
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              Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview.

              Ilex paraguariensis dried and minced leaves are made into a brewed tea, prepared in a sui generis manner by large populations in South America, having evolved from a tea drunk by the Guarani ethnic group to a beverage that has a social and almost ritualistic role in some South American modern societies. It is used both as a source of caffeine, in lieu or in parallel with tea and coffee, but also as a therapeutic agent for its alleged pharmacological properties. Although with some exceptions, research on biomedical properties of this herb has had a late start and strongly lags behind the impressive amount of literature on green tea and coffee. However, in the past 15 years, there was a several-fold increase in the literature studying Ilex paraguariensis properties showing effects such as antioxidant properties in chemical models and ex vivo lipoprotein studies, vaso-dilating and lipid reduction properties, antimutagenic effects, controversial association with oropharyngeal cancer, anti-glycation effects and weight reduction properties. Lately, promising results from human intervention studies have surfaced and the literature offers several developments on this area. The aim of this review is to provide a concise summary of the research published in the past three years, with an emphasis on translational studies, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Ilex paraguariensis reduces LDL-cholesterol levels in humans with Ilex paraguariensis dyslipoproteinemia and the effect is synergic with that of statins. Plasma antioxidant capacity as well as expression of antioxidant enzymes is positively modulated by intervention with Ilex paraguariensis in human cohorts. A review on the evidence implicating Ilex paraguariensis heavy consumption with some neoplasias show data that are inconclusive but indicate that contamination with alkylating agents during the drying process of the leaves should be avoided. On the other hand, several new studies confirm the antimutagenic effects of Ilex paraguariensis in different models, from DNA double breaks in cell culture models to mice studies. Novel interesting work has emerged showing significant effect on weight reduction both in mice and in rat models. Some mechanisms involved are inhibition of pancreatic lipase, activation of AMPK and uncoupling of electron transport. Intervention studies in animals have provided strong evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of Ilex paraguariensis, notably protecting cigarette-induced lung inflammation acting on macrophage migration and inactivating matrix-metalloproteinase. Research on the effects of Ilex paraguariensis in health and disease has confirmed its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and lipid-lowering activities. Although we are still waiting for the double-blind, randomized prospective clinical trial, the evidence seems to provide support for beneficial effects of mate drinking on chronic diseases with inflammatory component and lipid metabolism disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Journal of Natural Medicines
                J Nat Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1340-3443
                1861-0293
                June 2022
                March 15 2022
                June 2022
                : 76
                : 3
                : 654-669
                Article
                10.1007/s11418-022-01614-5
                8cf787c4-546b-4975-be48-ad7d3e755b0e
                © 2022

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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