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      The polyG diseases: a new disease entity

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          Abstract

          Recently, inspired by the similar clinical and pathological features shared with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), abnormal expansion of CGG repeats in the 5’ untranslated region has been found in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), oculopharyngeal myopathy with leukoencephalopathy (OPML), and oculopharyngodistal myopathy (OPDMs). Although the upstream open reading frame has not been elucidated in OPML and OPDMs, polyglycine (polyG) translated by expanded CGG repeats is reported to be as a primary pathogenesis in FXTAS and NIID. Collectively, these findings indicate a new disease entity, the polyG diseases. In this review, we state the common clinical manifestations, pathological features, mechanisms, and potential therapies in these diseases, and provide preliminary opinions about future research in polyG diseases.

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          Most cited references136

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          Identification of a gene (FMR-1) containing a CGG repeat coincident with a breakpoint cluster region exhibiting length variation in fragile X syndrome.

          Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation and is associated with a fragile site at Xq27.3. We identified human YAC clones that span fragile X site-induced translocation breakpoints coincident with the fragile X site. A gene (FMR-1) was identified within a four cosmid contig of YAC DNA that expresses a 4.8 kb message in human brain. Within a 7.4 kb EcoRI genomic fragment, containing FMR-1 exonic sequences distal to a CpG island previously shown to be hypermethylated in fragile X patients, is a fragile X site-induced breakpoint cluster region that exhibits length variation in fragile X chromosomes. This fragment contains a lengthy CGG repeat that is 250 bp distal of the CpG island and maps within a FMR-1 exon. Localization of the brain-expressed FMR-1 gene to this EcoRI fragment suggests the involvement of this gene in the phenotypic expression of the fragile X syndrome.
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            The promises and pitfalls of RNA-interference-based therapeutics.

            The discovery that gene expression can be controlled by the Watson-Crick base-pairing of small RNAs with messenger RNAs containing complementary sequence - a process known as RNA interference - has markedly advanced our understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and function. The ability of short RNA sequences to modulate gene expression has provided a powerful tool with which to study gene function and is set to revolutionize the treatment of disease. Remarkably, despite being just one decade from its discovery, the phenomenon is already being used therapeutically in human clinical trials, and biotechnology companies that focus on RNA-interference-based therapeutics are already publicly traded.
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              Recruitment of human muscleblind proteins to (CUG)(n) expansions associated with myotonic dystrophy.

              Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with a (CTG)(n) expansion in the 3'-untranslated region of the DM1 protein kinase (DMPK) gene. To explain disease pathogenesis, the RNA dominance model proposes that the DM1 mutation produces a gain-of-function at the RNA level in which CUG repeats form RNA hairpins that sequester nuclear factors required for proper muscle development and maintenance. Here, we identify the triplet repeat expansion (EXP) RNA-binding proteins as candidate sequestered factors. As predicted by the RNA dominance model, binding of the EXP proteins is specific for dsCUG RNAs and proportional to the size of the triplet repeat expansion. Remarkably, the EXP proteins are homologous to the Drosophila muscleblind proteins required for terminal differentiation of muscle and photoreceptor cells. EXP expression is also activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation, but the EXP proteins accumulate in nuclear foci in DM1 cells. We propose that DM1 disease is caused by aberrant recruitment of the EXP proteins to the DMPK transcript (CUG)(n) expansion.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jianwendeng@pkufh.com
                hongdaojun@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Acta Neuropathol Commun
                Acta Neuropathol Commun
                Acta Neuropathologica Communications
                BioMed Central (London )
                2051-5960
                31 May 2022
                31 May 2022
                2022
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411472.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1764 1621, Department of Neurology, , Peking University First Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                [2 ]GRID grid.412604.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1758 4073, Department of Neurology, , The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, ; Nanchang, China
                [3 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurovascular Disease Discovery, Beijing, China
                [4 ]GRID grid.412604.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1758 4073, Department of Medical Genetics, , The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, ; Nanchang, China
                Article
                1383
                10.1186/s40478-022-01383-y
                9153130
                8cf8c70a-b2ef-4842-82bb-37a3520cb265
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81571219
                Award ID: 81460199
                Award ID: 82071409
                Award ID: 82171846
                Award ID: 82160252
                Award ID: U20A20356
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                polyg diseases,fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome,neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease,oculopharyngeal myopathy with leukoencephalopathy,oculopharyngodistal myopathy

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