Background: Retention of uremic toxins in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) negatively affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alleviation of the adverse effects of uremic toxins is an important priority in the management of CKD. Scope: This review focuses on the evidence for the influence of uremic toxins on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with CKD and slowly developing uremia. The cardiovascular effects of acute kidney injury and rapidly developing azotemia are beyond the scope of this review and will not be discussed. Data on potential treatment options aimed at ameliorating the toxic effects of uremic toxins are summarized. Findings: Uremic toxins are associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. While a number of preclinical studies have detailed these effects, clinical studies directly evaluating cardiovascular outcomes consequent to the presence of uremic toxins have only recently become available. Conclusion: Uremic toxins play an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. Further studies are needed to better characterize the impact of these compounds on cardiovascular outcomes. Beneficial treatments are currently available that, in preliminary studies, appear to neutralize some of the adverse effects of uremic toxins. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to further determine the utility of these varied therapeutic agents.