Garcinia, a kind of dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanburyi Hook. F. G., is a traditional Chinese medicine with various biological functions such as detoxification, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. Recent studies suggest that garcinia has potential anticancer activity. Increasing evidences indicate that the main active monomer gambogic acid isolated from garcinia can inhibit the growth of various cancer cells. Neogambogic acid is an isolated compound with a similar chemical structure as gambogic acid. Preliminary studies show that the neogambogic acid can selectively inhibit the growth of various cancer cells, and has a broader antitumor activity and lower toxicity than gambogic acid. In this review, we summarize the advances made in the investigation of the anti-tumor effect of neogambogic acid in recent years.