In intact rats acclimated to 25 ± 1°C, acute exposure to cold resulted in simultaneous stimulation of TSH and ACTH secretion. The plasma TSH response to cold was identical at temperatures varying from + 14 to -10°C, whereas the adrenocortical response increased proportionally to the severity of cold. Acute stimulation of ACTH secretion by exposure to a stressful situation (electrical shocks) did not alter the TSH response to cold. Conversely, acute blockade of the pituitary-adrenocortical response by dexamethasone treatment did not enhance the TSH response to cold. Chronic stimulation of ACTH secretion resulting from adrenalectomy did not interfere with the TSH response during subsequent exposure to cold. However, a reduced adrenocortical response to cold was observed during chronic hypersecretion of TSH resulting from previous thyroidectomy. These findings do not support the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between TSH and ACTH secretions during acute cold exposure, but rather suggest that these secretions are independent.