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      Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being.

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          Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism.

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            Rethinking the value of choice: a cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation.

            Conventional wisdom and decades of psychological research have linked the provision of choice to increased levels of intrinsic motivation, greater persistence, better performance, and higher satisfaction. This investigation examined the relevance and limitations of these findings for cultures in which individuals possess more interdependent models of the self. In 2 studies, personal choice generally enhanced motivation more for American independent selves than for Asian interdependent selves. In addition, Anglo American children showed less intrinsic motivation when choices were made for them by others than when they made their own choices, whether the others were authority figures or peers. In contrast, Asian American children proved most intrinsically motivated when choices were made for them by trusted authority figures or peers. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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              What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs.

              Three studies compared 10 candidate psychological needs in an attempt to determine which are truly most fundamental for humans. Participants described "most satisfying events" within their lives and then rated the salience of each of the 10 candidate needs within these events. Supporting self-determination theory postulates (Ryan & Deci, 2000)--autonomy, competence, and relatedness, were consistently among the top 4 needs, in terms of both their salience and their association with event-related affect. Self-esteem was also important, whereas self-actualization or meaning, physical thriving, popularity or influence, and money-luxury were less important. This basic pattern emerged within three different time frames and within both U.S. and South Korean samples and also within a final study that asked, "What's unsatisfying about unsatisfying events?" Implications for hierarchical theories of needs are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1315
                0022-3514
                2003
                2003
                : 84
                : 1
                : 97-110
                Article
                10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.97
                © 2003

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