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      Insights into the Antimicrobial Activities and Metabolomes of Aquimarina (Flavobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes) Species from the Rare Marine Biosphere

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          Abstract

          Two novel natural products, the polyketide cuniculene and the peptide antibiotic aquimarin, were recently discovered from the marine bacterial genus Aquimarina. However, the diversity of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (SM-BGCs) in Aquimarina genomes indicates a far greater biosynthetic potential. In this study, nine representative Aquimarina strains were tested for antimicrobial activity against diverse human-pathogenic and marine microorganisms and subjected to metabolomic and genomic profiling. We found an inhibitory activity of most Aquimarina strains against Candida glabrata and marine Vibrio and Alphaproteobacteria species. Aquimarina sp. Aq135 and Aquimarina muelleri crude extracts showed particularly promising antimicrobial activities, amongst others against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The metabolomic and functional genomic profiles of Aquimarina spp. followed similar patterns and were shaped by phylogeny. SM-BGC and metabolomics networks suggest the presence of novel polyketides and peptides, including cyclic depsipeptide-related compounds. Moreover, exploration of the ‘Sponge Microbiome Project’ dataset revealed that Aquimarina spp. possess low-abundance distributions worldwide across multiple marine biotopes. Our study emphasizes the relevance of this member of the microbial rare biosphere as a promising source of novel natural products. We predict that future metabologenomics studies of Aquimarina species will expand the spectrum of known secondary metabolites and bioactivities from marine ecosystems.

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          Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks.

          Cytoscape is an open source software project for integrating biomolecular interaction networks with high-throughput expression data and other molecular states into a unified conceptual framework. Although applicable to any system of molecular components and interactions, Cytoscape is most powerful when used in conjunction with large databases of protein-protein, protein-DNA, and genetic interactions that are increasingly available for humans and model organisms. Cytoscape's software Core provides basic functionality to layout and query the network; to visually integrate the network with expression profiles, phenotypes, and other molecular states; and to link the network to databases of functional annotations. The Core is extensible through a straightforward plug-in architecture, allowing rapid development of additional computational analyses and features. Several case studies of Cytoscape plug-ins are surveyed, including a search for interaction pathways correlating with changes in gene expression, a study of protein complexes involved in cellular recovery to DNA damage, inference of a combined physical/functional interaction network for Halobacterium, and an interface to detailed stochastic/kinetic gene regulatory models.
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            MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

            The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

              SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                MDARE6
                Marine Drugs
                Marine Drugs
                MDPI AG
                1660-3397
                July 2022
                June 28 2022
                : 20
                : 7
                : 423
                Article
                10.3390/md20070423
                35877716
                8d12d085-294a-4665-84e8-ba1d5cc42f13
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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