There are four typical potential protective and risk factors in the context of campus bullying: social support, role choice of bystander, moral disengagement, and ethnic/racial differences. Adolescent victims of bullying can improve their mental health by obtaining different social support to maintain their sense of self-worth. The role selection of bystander should consider both the psychological factors of social information processing theory and the situational evaluation factors of transactional model of appraisal and coping. Moral disengagement is the cognitive distortion mechanism that leads to individual bullying behavior. Ethnic/Racial differences seem to have less impact on bullying in Chinese schools. Future research should consider the influence of frequency and intensity of bullying and being bullied, attach importance to the collection and analysis of multi-party data, interpret the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in conjunction, explore the construction of an integrated model of the impact of multiple factors on bullying, and further verify and explore the possible causal relationship in the situation of campus bullying.
【摘要】 校园欺凌情境中存在着社会支持、旁观者角色选择、道德脱离、民族/种族差异等4类典型的潜在保护性因素和 风险因素。青春期阶段的欺凌受害者可以通过获得不同的社会支持维系其自我价值感, 进而改善心理健康水平;旁观者角 色选择需要同时考虑社会信息加工理论的心理因素和评价应对交易模型的情境评价因素;道德脱离是导致个体欺凌行为 的认知扭曲机制;而民族/种族差异因素对中国校园欺凌的影响较小。未来研究应考虑欺凌与被欺凌频率和强度的影响, 重视多方数据的采集和分析, 将横断研究和纵向研究结果结合解释, 探索构建多重因素对校园欺凌影响的整合模型, 进一 步验证和探讨校园欺凌情境中可能存在的因果关系。