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      Effect of ketorolac in intra-articular injection analgesia for postoperative pain in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a pilot-controlled clinical study

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          To date, a regional approach using local anesthetics has become a popular analgesic method for arthroscopy. The optimal postoperative analgesia method for shoulder arthroscopy is still debated.


          This study was designed to evaluate the effect and safety of using ketorolac in combination with a multimodal drug regime (ropivacaine, morphine, and triamcinolone acetonide) after shoulder arthroscopy.


          A total of 60 patients were included in a pilot study and patients were randomized into an experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The following parameters were used to evaluate pain relief levels postoperatively: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, morphine consumption, and initial analgesic desired time. Complications were also recorded.


          Except for 1 hour postoperatively, patients in the experimental group experienced lower VAS scores during the first 48 hours postoperatively ( P<0.05). The VAS score in both groups increased after 3 hours postoperatively and peaked at 12 hours postoperatively (2.54±0.86 vs 3.25±1.18). The VAS scores on movement in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group at 24 or 48 hours postoperatively ( P=0.004, 0.001). A total of 18 (60.0%) patients in the experimental group required no additional analgesia, compared with 10 (33.3 %) in the control group ( P=0.035). The mean rescue analgesia was 11.40±5.56 mg in the experiment group, while 16.57±8.48 mg in the control group ( P=0.016). The initial analgesic desired time was delayed significantly in the experimental group (16.50±14.57 hours vs 8.9±6.32 hours, P=0.000).


          Adding ketorolac to intra-articular injection analgesia is a safe and effective method to improve pain relief after shoulder arthroscopy, and further prospective controlled trials are necessary to allow definite treatment recommendations.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Analgesic effect of intraarticular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery.

          Opioids can produce potent antinociceptive effects by interacting with local opioid receptors in inflamed peripheral tissue. In this study we examined the analgesic effects of the intraarticular, as compared with intravenous, administration of morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery. In a double-blind, randomized trial, we studied 52 patients who had received one of four injections at the end of surgery. The patients in group 1 (n = 18) received 1 mg of morphine intraarticularly and saline intravenously; those in group 2 (n = 15), saline intraarticularly and 1 mg of morphine intravenously; those in group 3 (n = 10), 0.5 mg of morphine intraarticularly and saline intravenously; and those in group 4 (n = 9), 1 mg of morphine and 0.1 mg of naloxone intraarticularly and saline intravenously. The volume of the intraarticular injections was 40 ml, and that of the intravenous injections was 1 ml. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours, postoperative pain was assessed with a visual-analogue scale, a numerical-rating scale, and the McGill pain questionnaire. The need for supplemental analgesic agents, the patients' vital signs, and the occurrence of side effects were monitored. All pain scores were lower in group 1 than in group 2 at all times. The differences were significant (P less than 0.05) at three, four, and six hours (mean [+/- SD] visual-analogue score at six hours, 9 +/- 13 mm vs. 37 +/- 31 mm). The mean (+/- SD) consumption of supplemental analgesic medication per 24 hours was significantly lower in group 1 (36 +/- 51 mg of diclofenac and 1.2 +/- 3.4 mg of meperidine) than in group 2 (75 +/- 42 mg of diclofenac and 14 +/- 18 mg of meperidine, P less than 0.05). The visual-analogue scores in group 3 were slightly but not significantly higher than those in group 1 at all times except 6 and 24 hours after injection. The visual-analogue scores were significantly higher in group 4 than in group 1 one to four hours after injection (P less than 0.05), indicating that the analgesic effect of intraarticular morphine was reversible by naloxone. Low doses of intraarticular morphine can significantly reduce pain after knee surgery through an action specific to local opioid receptors that reaches its maximal effect three to six hours after injection.
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            Opioids from immunocytes interact with receptors on sensory nerves to inhibit nociception in inflammation.

            Exogenous opioids can produce localized opioid receptor-mediated antinociception in peripheral inflamed tissue. Previous studies show that activation of endogenous opioids by a cold water swim in rats with hind paw inflammation results in a similar local antinociceptive effect but suggest that pituitary-adrenal opioid pools are not directly involved in producing this effect. Here we show increased amounts of opioid peptides in immune cells infiltrating the inflamed tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrate immunoreactive opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. The local administration of antibodies against opioid peptides or receptors or systemic pretreatment with the immunosuppressant cyclosporine blocks cold water swim-induced antinociception. These findings suggest that antinociception in inflammation can be brought about by endogenous opioids from immune cells interacting with opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerves.
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              Comparison of postoperative analgesic effects of intraarticular bupivacaine and morphine following arthroscopic knee surgery.

              Recent studies have shown that, in the presence of inflammation, the local administration of opioids results in analgesia. The analgesic efficacy of local anesthetics and morphine administered intraarticularly was compared in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery under epidural anesthesia. We compared postoperative pain scores (VAS) and opioid requirements among 47 patients receiving, in a randomized, double-blinded fashion, one of three intraarticular medications (20 ml): normal saline with 100 micrograms epinephrine (group 1, n = 16); 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 micrograms epinephrine (group 2, n = 15); and 3 mg morphine sulfate and 100 micrograms epinephrine in normal saline (group 3, n = 16). VAS scores were similar in the groups preoperatively and on arrival in the recovery room. At the end of the first postoperative hour, the residual sensory blockade was minimal in all three groups (mean = 3.8-4.1 segments) and almost total recovery occurred in all three groups before the second postoperative hour. The VAS in group 3 was not significantly different than group 1 at any time interval. Intraarticular bupivacaine (group 2) provided significantly better analgesia than did saline or morphine (group 1 or 3) in the first 2 postoperative hours (ANOVA, P < .05). Subsequent VAS scores were not significantly different in the three groups. While no patient in group 2 requested analgesics during the first postoperative hour, nine patients in group 3 required systemic analgesics (P < .01). We conclude that no evidence for a peripheral opiate-receptor mediated analgesia could be demonstrated in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery under epidural anesthesia.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                17 January 2019
                : 12
                : 417-422
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedics, Changzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China, quyuxing8848@ 123456163.com
                [2 ]Department of Arthroplasty, The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China, lihuancz12@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yuxing Qu, Department of Orthopaedics, Changzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, 25 Heping N Rd, Tianning Qu, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China, Email quyuxing8848@ 123456163.com
                Huan Li, Department of Arthroplasty, The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou, 185 Juqian Street, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China, Email lihuancz12@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Xu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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