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Mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia durante 1985 a 2008 Translated title: Child mortality from cancer in Colombia, 1985-2008

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      Abstract

      OBJETIVO: Determinar la magnitud de la mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia y evaluar las tendencias en su evolución entre 1985 y 2008. MÉTODOS: Se analizó durante dicho período la mortalidad en la población colombiana de 0 a 14 años provocada por cáncer en todas las localizaciones -leucemias, tumores malignos del sistema nervioso central (SNC), linfomas no Hodgkin, linfomas Hodgkin, tumores óseos y tumores renales. Se calculó el cambio promedio en las variaciones de las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer en dicho grupo etario. RESULTADOS: Las muertes por cáncer constituyeron el 3,5% de la mortalidad en menores de 15 años. Entre los períodos 1985-1989 y 2005-2008 las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer mostraron un descenso en ambos sexos, pasando de 54,4 muertes por millón a 44,8 muertes por millón en niños y de 40,9 muertes por millón a 37,9 muertes por millón en niñas. La mortalidad por leucemias y linfomas registró un descenso estadísticamente significativo, mientras que la mortalidad por cánceres del SNC, contrariamente, aumentó también de manera significativa. CONCLUSIONES: Pese a leves tendencias a la baja en la mortalidad por leucemias y linfomas no Hodgkin, las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia permanecen altas y requieren esfuerzos importantes en los tratamientos para obtener mayores logros.

      Translated abstract

      OBJECTIVE: Determine the magnitude of child mortality from cancer in Colombia and evaluate the trends in its evolution from 1985 to 2008. METHODS: Mortality in the Colombian population aged 0-14 years from cancer in any site (e.g., leukemia, malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), nonHodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, bone tumors, kidney tumors) during this period was analyzed. The mean change in the variations of cancer mortality trends in this age group was calculated. RESULTS: Deaths from cancer accounted for 3.5% of mortality in children under 15 years of age. During the periods 1985-1989 and 2005-2008 there was a decrease in mortality from cancer in both sexes, with figures dropping from 54.4 deaths per million to 44.8 deaths per million in boys and from 40.9 deaths per million to 37.9 deaths per million in girls. There was a statistically significant decrease in leukemia- and lymphoma-related mortality, whereas mortality associated with cancers of the CNS increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of slight downward trends in mortality from leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, childhood cancer mortality rates in Colombia remain high. Significant work on treatments for childhood cancer is required to obtain greater success.

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          Presentation of childhood CNS tumours: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Suspicion of a CNS tumour is classically raised by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal deficits (including seizures), or papilloedema. Development of guidelines is needed for the identification and referral of children who might have a CNS tumour. We did a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to identify the clinical presentation of childhood CNS tumours to provide evidence to support the development of guidelines to assist with the identification and referral for imaging of children who might have a central nervous system tumour. Medline, Embase, and PubMed were searched for cohort studies and case series in children, published between January, 1991, and August, 2005, detailing the symptoms and signs at diagnosis of a CNS tumour. 74 papers (n=4171) met the inclusion criteria. 56 symptoms and signs at diagnosis were identified, ranked by frequency, and clustered according to age, anatomical criteria, and genetic criteria. The most frequent symptoms and signs at diagnosis were: headache (33%), nausea and vomiting (32%), abnormalities of gait and coordination (27%), and papilloedema (13%) for intracranial tumours; macrocephaly (41%), nausea and vomiting (30%), irritability (24%), and lethargy (21%) for children aged under 4 years with intracranial tumours; reduced visual acuity (41%), exophthalmia (16%), and optic atrophy (15%) for children with an intracranial tumour and neurofibromatosis; nausea and vomiting (75%), headache (67%), abnormal gait and coordination (60%), and papilloedema (34%) for posterior fossa tumours; unspecified symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure (47%), seizures (38%), and papilloedema (21%) for supratentorial tumours; headache (49%), abnormal eye movements (21%), squint (21%), and nausea and vomiting (19%) for central brain tumours; abnormal gait and coordination (78%), cranial nerve palsies (52%), pyramidal signs (33%), headache (23%), and squint (19%) for brainstem tumours; and back pain (67%), abnormalities of gait and coordination (42%), spinal deformity (39%), focal weakness (21%), and sphincter disturbance (20%) for spinal-cord tumours. Other features noted were weight loss, growth failure, and precocious puberty. Symptoms of raised intracranial pressure were absent in more than half of children with brain tumours. Other neurological features were heterogeneous and related to tumour location. Apart from raised intracranial pressure, motor and visual system abnormalities, weight loss, macrocephaly, growth failure, and precocious puberty also suggest presence of an intracranial tumour. Children with signs and symptoms that could result from a CNS tumour need a thorough visual and motor system examination and an assessment of growth and pubertal status. Occurrence of multiple symptoms and signs should alert clinicians to possible CNS tumours.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Colombia
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rpsp
            Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
            Rev Panam Salud Publica
            Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Washington )
            1020-4989
            July 2011
            : 30
            : 1
            : 15-21
            S1020-49892011000700003

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Public Health
            Categories
            Health Policy & Services

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