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      Archive for Research in Child Health (ARCH) and Baby Gut: Study Protocol for a Remote, Prospective, Longitudinal Pregnancy and Birth Cohort to Address Microbiota Development and Child Health

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      Methods and Protocols
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The infant gut microbiome is shaped by numerous factors such as diet and the maternal microbiota and is also associated with later atopy and obesity. The Archive for Research in Child Health and Baby Gut (ARCHBG) cohort was established in 2015 to (1) understand how the development of the infant gut microbiota is associated with atopy, obesity, and gastrointestinal disease and (2) characterize the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and infant diet with the development of the gut microbiota. Study participants for ARCHBG are convenience samples recruited through two pipelines in Lansing and Traverse City, Michigan: (1) Archive for Research in Child Health (ARCHGUT) and (2) BABYGUT. A total of (n = 51) mother–infant dyads have been enrolled to date. This prospective cohort study collects maternal pre-pregnancy fecal samples, maternal data, child fecal samples at four timepoints (one week, six months, 12 months, and 24 months), and child data up to five years of age. All samples and data are collected remotely by mail, phone, or drop-off at select locations. Of all participants enrolled, 76.5% (n = 39) of infants have a complete record of stool samples. At least 88.2% (n = 45) of fecal samples were submitted at each timepoint. ARCHBG will allow for a nuanced understanding of the temporal development of the infant gut microbiome and numerous child health outcomes.

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          Most cited references58

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          G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences

          G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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            Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

            The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life.
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              Early estimates of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child mortality in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study

              Summary Background While the COVID-19 pandemic will increase mortality due to the virus, it is also likely to increase mortality indirectly. In this study, we estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths resulting from the potential disruption of health systems and decreased access to food. Methods We modelled three scenarios in which the coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions is reduced by 9·8–51·9% and the prevalence of wasting is increased by 10–50%. Although our scenarios are hypothetical, we sought to reflect real-world possibilities, given emerging reports of the supply-side and demand-side effects of the pandemic. We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths under each scenario, in 118 low-income and middle-income countries. We estimated additional deaths for a single month and extrapolated for 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Findings Our least severe scenario (coverage reductions of 9·8–18·5% and wasting increase of 10%) over 6 months would result in 253 500 additional child deaths and 12 200 additional maternal deaths. Our most severe scenario (coverage reductions of 39·3–51·9% and wasting increase of 50%) over 6 months would result in 1 157 000 additional child deaths and 56 700 additional maternal deaths. These additional deaths would represent an increase of 9·8–44·7% in under-5 child deaths per month, and an 8·3–38·6% increase in maternal deaths per month, across the 118 countries. Across our three scenarios, the reduced coverage of four childbirth interventions (parenteral administration of uterotonics, antibiotics, and anticonvulsants, and clean birth environments) would account for approximately 60% of additional maternal deaths. The increase in wasting prevalence would account for 18–23% of additional child deaths and reduced coverage of antibiotics for pneumonia and neonatal sepsis and of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea would together account for around 41% of additional child deaths. Interpretation Our estimates are based on tentative assumptions and represent a wide range of outcomes. Nonetheless, they show that, if routine health care is disrupted and access to food is decreased (as a result of unavoidable shocks, health system collapse, or intentional choices made in responding to the pandemic), the increase in child and maternal deaths will be devastating. We hope these numbers add context as policy makers establish guidelines and allocate resources in the days and months to come. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                MPERC6
                Methods and Protocols
                MPs
                MDPI AG
                2409-9279
                September 2021
                August 03 2021
                : 4
                : 3
                : 52
                Article
                10.3390/mps4030052
                34449678
                8d2f0050-4ea9-4396-b021-243ffdaafdb5
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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