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      Assessment of Measurement Reliability for the IPN Test in Cardiac Patients

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          Cardiological diagnostics use maximal and submaximal tests with increasing load. Maximal stress tests are currently considered the gold standard. The Institut für Prävention und Nachsorge, Cologne (IPN) test may be an alternative when maximal patient load is not indicated. The universality of the test is well-documented in sport, but the reliability of this test is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess between-trial and between-day reliability for parameters assessed by the IPN stress test in cardiological patients.: In a study of 24 patients aged 39 to 79 years with cardiovascular diseases, the IPN cycle ergometer short test was performed (submaximal performance test). The reliability of heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, absolute power at submaximal load, relative performance at submaximal load and target heart rate were assessed. Good (Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values ranged from 0.832 to 0.894) and excellent (ICC values ranged from 0.904 to 0.969) between-trial reliability was noted. Between-day reliability was good (ICC values from 0.777 to 0.895) and excellent (ICC values from 0.922 to 0.950). The obtained results suggest that the IPN test may be a reliable tool for use in the assessment of cardiological patients, avoiding the implementation of maximal efforts when excessive patient load is not recommended.

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              Compared with maximal exercise testing, submaximal exercise testing appears to have greater applicability to physical therapists in their role as clinical exercise specialists. This review contrasts maximal and submaximal exercise testing. Two major categories of submaximal tests (ie, predictive and performance tests) and their relative merits are described. Predictive tests are submaximal tests that are used to predict maximal aerobic capacity. Performance tests involve measuring the responses to standardized physical activities that are typically encountered in everyday life. To maximize the validity and reliability of data obtained from submaximal tests, physical therapists are cautioned to apply the tests selectively based on their indications; to adhere to methods, including the requisite number of practice sessions; and to use measurements such as heart rate, blood pressure, exertion, and pain to evaluate test performance and to safely monitor patients.

                Author and article information

                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                21 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                [1 ]Physiotherapy and Sports Centre, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland; loleksy@
                [2 ]Oleksy Medical & Sports Sciences, 37-100 Łańcut, Poland
                [3 ]Institute of Clinical Rehabilitation, University of Physical Education in Krakow, 31-571 Krakow, Poland; agnieszka.skiba@ (A.S.); anna.mika@ (A.M.)
                [4 ]Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Branch in Puławy, 24-100 Puławy, Poland; Marcin.Trebowicz@
                [5 ]“Werandki” Diagnostics & Physiotheraphy Centre, 24-140 Nałęczów, Poland
                [6 ]Military Clinical Hospital with Outpatient Clinic, 20-049 Lublin, Poland; bartek.rukasz@
                [7 ]Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland; drstolarczyk@
                [8 ]Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy, Jagiellonian University Medical College Krakow, 31-008 Krakow, Poland; joanna.zyznawska@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: iwona.sulowska@ ; Tel.: +48-1-2683-1134; Fax: +48-1-2683-1300
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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