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      Obesity indices and inflammatory markers in obese non-diabetic normo- and hypertensive patients: a comparative pilot study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to estimate associations between inflammatory markers and obesity indices in normo- and hypertensive subjects.

          Methods

          65 obese adult subjects were divided into two groups: (A) of hypertensives (n = 54) and (B) of normotensives (n = 11). Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum concentrations were estimated.

          Results

          In group A WHtR was higher (0.69 ± 0.07 vs 0.63 ± 0.06; p < 0.01), hsCRP correlated with BMI and WHtR (r = 0.343; p = 0.011 and r = 0.363; p < 0.01, respectively). BAI correlated with hsCRP in group A and B (r = 0.329; p < 0.05 and r = 0.642; p < 0.05; respectively) and in females and males (r = 0.305; p = 0.05 and r = 0.44; p < 0.05, respectively). In females hsCRP was higher (3.2 ± 2.2 mg/l vs 2.1 ± 1.5 mg/l; p < 0.05). In patients without lipid lowering treatment hsCRP and IL-6 were higher (3.2 ± 1.7 mg/l vs 2.4 ±2.2 mg/l; p = 0.01 and 15.9 ± 7.2 pg/ml vs 13.6 ± 9.9 pg/ml; p < 0.01, respectively).

          Conclusions

          WHtR is a sensitive index associated with chronic inflammation in obese hypertensive subjects. BAI correlates with hsCRP independently of hypertension and sex. hsCRP is more sensitive marker associated with obesity than IL-6 and TNF-α. Lipid lowering treatment influence chronic inflammation.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Obesity, inflammation and the immune system.

          Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.
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            Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity related metabolic diseases.

            Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, fatty liver disease, dementia, obstructive sleep apnea and several types of cancer. Adipocyte and adipose tissue dysfunction represent primary defects in obesity and may link obesity to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction manifests by a proinflammatory adipokine secretion pattern that mediate auto/paracrine and endocrine communication and by inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly in intra-abdominal fat. Impaired AT function is caused by the interaction of genetic, behavioral and environmental factors which lead to adipocyte hypertrophy, ectopic fat accumulation, hypoxia, AT stresses, impaired AT mitochondrial function and inflammatory processes within adipose tissue. Recently, increased autophagy has been linked to obesity and AT dysfunction and may represent a mechanism to compensate for AT stresses. A better understanding of mechanisms causing or maintaining AT dysfunction may provide new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Inflammation, abdominal obesity, and smoking as predictors of hypertension.

              Development of hypertension has been linked to chronic low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether this connection is mediated by features of the metabolic syndrome or smoking, or their changes, which themselves have been linked to inflammation. We studied the predictive value of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, and abdominal obesity to the development of hypertension in an 11-year follow-up of a population-based study cohort comprising 379 middle-aged normotensive men. During the follow-up, 124 men (33%) developed hypertension. Men with hs-CRP > or =3.0 mg/L were 2.8x (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 6.6) more likely to develop hypertension than with hs-CRP <1.0 mg/L even after adjustment for features of the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle factors, and their changes. Cigarette smoking was also associated with development of hypertension independently of inflammation and other confounders. Waist girth increased more in men who quit smoking than in other men. An increase in waist girth during follow-up strongly predicted incident hypertension. The decrease in smoking was not associated with a lower risk of hypertension in age-adjusted analyses. Hypertension is preceded by low-grade chronic inflammation in middle-aged white men independently of smoking or features of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, smoking may be a risk factor for hypertension. Although stopping smoking is beneficial with respect to health outcomes, the subsequent increase in weight and waist girth associated with smoking cessation may offset the decrease in the risk of hypertension that one may otherwise expect.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lipids Health Dis
                Lipids Health Dis
                Lipids in Health and Disease
                BioMed Central
                1476-511X
                2014
                8 February 2014
                : 13
                : 29
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Żeromskiego str. 113, 90-549 Lodz, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                Article
                1476-511X-13-29
                10.1186/1476-511X-13-29
                3921991
                24507240
                Copyright © 2014 St¿pie¿ et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research

                Biochemistry

                obesity indices, hypertension, obesity, chronic inflammation

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