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      Reduction in the incidence of shivering with perioperative dexmedetomidine: A randomized prospective study

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims:

          Shivering is distressing to the patient and discomforting to the attending anesthesiologist, with a varying degree of success. Various drugs and regimens have been employed to abolish the occurrence of shivering. The present study aims to explore the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine in suppressing the postanesthetic shivering in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

          Materials and Methods:

          The present study was carried out on 80 patients, in American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, aged 22–59 years, who underwent general anesthesia for laparoscopic surgical procedures. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups: group N ( n = 40) and group D ( n = 40). Group D were administered 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine intravenously, while group N received similar volume of saline during peri-op period. Cardiorespiratory parameters were observed and recorded during the preop, intraop, and postop periods. Any incidence of postop shivering was observed and recorded as per 4 point scale. Side effects were also observed, recorded, and treated symptomatically. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 for windows and employing ANOVA and chi-square test with post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni's correction.

          Results:

          The two groups were comparable regarding demographic profile ( P > 0.05). Incidence of shivering in group N was 42.5%, which was statistically highly significant ( P = 0.014). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure also showed significant variation clinically and statistically in group D patients during the postop period ( P = 0.008 and 0.012). A high incidence of sedation ( P = 0.000) and dry mouth ( P = 0.000) was observed in group D, whereas the incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in group N ( P = 0.011 and 0.034).

          Conclusions:

          Dexmedetomidine seems to possess antishivering properties and was found to reduce the occurrence of shivering in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

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          Most cited references 46

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          The effects of increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans.

          This study determined the responses to increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans. Ten healthy men (20-27 yr) provided informed consent and were monitored (underwent electrocardiography, measured arterial, central venous [CVP] and pulmonary artery [PAP] pressures, cardiac output, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide [ETCO2], respiration, blood gas, and catecholamines). Hemodynamic measurements, blood sampling, and psychometric, cold pressor, and baroreflex tests were performed at rest and during sequential 40-min intravenous target infusions of dexmedetomidine (0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 2.0, 3.2, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/ml; baroreflex testing only at 0.5 and 0.8 ng/ml). The initial dose of dexmedetomidine decreased catecholamines 45-76% and eliminated the norepinephrine increase that was seen during the cold pressor test. Catecholamine suppression persisted in subsequent infusions. The first two doses of dexmedetomidine increased sedation 38 and 65%, and lowered mean arterial pressure by 13%, but did not change central venous pressure or pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent higher doses increased sedation, all pressures, and calculated vascular resistance, and resulted in significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Recall and recognition decreased at a dose of more than 0.7 ng/ml. The pain rating and mean arterial pressure increase to cold pressor test progressively diminished as the dexmedetomidine dose increased. The baroreflex heart rate slowing as a result of phenylephrine challenge was potentiated at both doses of dexmedetomidine. Respiratory variables were minimally changed during infusions, whereas acid-base was unchanged. Increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans resulted in progressive increases in sedation and analgesia, decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and memory. A biphasic (low, then high) dose-response relation for mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and vascular resistances, and an attenuation of the cold pressor response also were observed.
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            Sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties of small-dose dexmedetomidine infusions.

            This research determined the safety and efficacy of two small-dose infusions of dexmedetomidine by evaluating sedation, analgesia, cognition, and cardiorespiratory function. Seven healthy young volunteers provided informed consent and participated on three occasions with random assignment to drug or placebo. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, ETCO(2), O(2) saturation, and processed electroencephalogram (bispectral analysis) were monitored. Baseline hemodynamic measurements were acquired, and psychometric tests were performed (visual analog scale for sedation; observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale; digit symbol substitution test; and memory). The pain from a 1-min cold pressor test was quantified with a visual analog scale. After a 10-min initial dose of saline or 6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine, volunteers received 50-min IV infusions of saline, or 0.2 or 0.6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine. Measurements were repeated at the end of infusion and during recovery. The two dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in similar and significant sedation (30%-60%), impairment of memory (approximately 50%), and psychomotor performance (28%-41%). Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, ETCO(2), and respiratory rate were well preserved throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Pain to the cold pressor test was reduced by 30% during dexmedetomidine infusion. Small-dose dexmedetomidine provided sedation, analgesia, and memory and cognitive impairment. These properties might prove useful in a postoperative or intensive care unit setting. IMPLICATIPNS: The alpha(2) agonist, dexmedetomidine, has sedation and analgesic properties. This study quantified these effects, as well as cardiorespiratory, memory and psychomotor effects, in healthy volunteers. Dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in reversible sedation, mild analgesia, and memory impairment without cardiorespiratory compromise.
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              Clinical uses of alpha2 -adrenergic agonists.

               T Kamibayashi,  M Maze (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol
                JOACP
                Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0970-9185
                2231-2730
                Jan-Mar 2012
                : 28
                : 1
                : 86-91
                Affiliations
                Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Ram Nagar, Banur, Punjab, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, House No-27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, Patiala, Punjab - 147 001, India. E-mail: sukhminder_bajwa2001@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JOACP-28-86
                10.4103/0970-9185.92452
                3275980
                22345953
                Copyright: © Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                tramadol, dexmedetomidine, shivering, hypothermia

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