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      Closely related octopus species show different spatial genetic structures in response to the Antarctic seascape

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          Abstract

          Determining whether comparable processes drive genetic divergence among marine species is relevant to molecular ecologists and managers alike. Sympatric species with similar life histories might be expected to show comparable patterns of genetic differentiation and a consistent influence of environmental factors in shaping divergence. We used microsatellite loci to quantify genetic differentiation across the Scotia Arc in three species of closely related benthic octopods, Pareledone turqueti, P. charcoti, and Adelieledone polymorpha. The relative importance of environmental factors (latitude, longitude, depth, and temperature) in shaping genetic structure was investigated when significant spatial genetic structure was uncovered. Isolated populations of P. turqueti and A. polymorpha at these species’ range margins were genetically different to samples close to mainland Antarctica; however, these species showed different genetic structures at a regional scale. Samples of P. turqueti from the Antarctic Peninsula, Elephant Island, and Signy Island were genetically different, and this divergence was associated primarily with sample collection depth. By contrast, weak or nonsignificant spatial genetic structure was evident across the Antarctic Peninsula, Elephant Island, and Signy Island region for A. polymorpha, and slight associations between population divergence and temperature or depth (and/or longitude) were detected. Pareledone charcoti has a limited geographic range, but exhibited no genetic differentiation between samples from a small region of the Scotia Arc (Elephant Island and the Antarctic Peninsula). Thus, closely related species with similar life history strategies can display contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation depending on spatial scale; moreover, depth may drive genetic divergence in Southern Ocean benthos.

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          Most cited references 50

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          The genetical structure of populations.

           S. Wright (1951)
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            Do island populations have less genetic variation than mainland populations?

             R Frankham (1997)
            Island populations are much more prone to extinction than mainland populations. The reasons for this remain controversial. If inbreeding and loss of genetic variation are involved, then genetic variation must be lower on average in island than mainland populations. Published data on levels of genetic variation for allozymes, nuclear DNA markers, mitochondrial DNA, inversions and quantitative characters in island and mainland populations were analysed. A large and highly significant majority of island populations have less allozyme genetic variation than their mainland counterparts (165 of 202 comparisons), the average reduction being 29 per cent. The magnitude of differences was related to dispersal ability. There were related differences for all the other measures. Island endemic species showed lower genetic variation than related mainland species in 34 of 38 cases. The proportionate reduction in genetic variation was significantly greater in island endemic than in nonendemic island populations in mammals and birds, but not in insects. Genetic factors cannot be discounted as a cause of higher extinction rates of island than mainland populations.
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              Rapid climate change in the ocean west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jan.strugnell@jcu.edu.au
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                05 September 2017
                October 2017
                : 7
                : 19 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2017.7.issue-19 )
                : 8087-8099
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture Marine Biology and Aquaculture James Cook University Townsville Qld Australia
                [ 2 ] Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution School of Life Sciences La Trobe University Melbourne Vic. Australia
                [ 3 ] Ryan Institute and School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway Galway Ireland
                [ 4 ] Department of Ecology and Genetics University of Oulu Oulu Finland
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Jan M. Strugnell, Marine Biology & Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld, Australia.

                Email: jan.strugnell@ 123456jcu.edu.au

                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                ECE33327
                10.1002/ece3.3327
                5632630
                © 2017 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, Pages: 13, Words: 10831
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: NERC/AFI
                Award ID: NE⁄C506321⁄1
                Funded by: Lloyd's Tercentenary Fellowship
                Funded by: CoSyst
                Funded by: Antarctic Science Bursary
                Funded by: Systematics Association
                Funded by: Edith Mary Pratt Musgrave Fund
                Funded by: Australia and Pacific Science Foundation
                Funded by: Thomas Davies Research Fund
                Funded by: Finnish Academy
                Award ID: 305532
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                ece33327
                October 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.1 mode:remove_FC converted:08.10.2017

                Evolutionary Biology

                southern ocean, octopus, microsatelliteisolation by depth, antarctica

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