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      Gallic acid isolated from Spirogyra sp. improves cardiovascular disease through a vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect.

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          Abstract

          In this study, we investigated the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of gallic acid (GA), a polyphenol isolated from the green alga Spirogyra sp., to assess its suitability as a therapeutic for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We examined the effect of GA on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). GA increased nitric oxide (NO) levels by increasing phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and its effect on NO production was attenuated by pretreatment with the eNOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). We also investigated its antihypertensive effect by examining GA-mediated inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). GA inhibited ACE with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 37.38 ± 0.39 μg/ml. In silico simulations revealed that GA binds to the active site of ACE (PDB: 1O86) with a binding energy of -270.487 kcal/mol. Furthermore, GA clearly reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to an extent comparable to captopril. These results suggest that GA isolated from Spirogyra sp. exerts multiple therapeutic effects and has potential as a CVD treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
          Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
          Elsevier BV
          1872-7077
          1382-6689
          Mar 2015
          : 39
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea.
          [2 ] Department of Seafood Science and Technolgy, Institute of Marine Industry, Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong 650-160, Republic of Korea.
          [3 ] Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Marine Industry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea.
          [4 ] Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ghkim@kongju.ac.kr.
          [5 ] Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: youjin2014@gmail.com.
          Article
          S1382-6689(15)00048-4
          10.1016/j.etap.2015.02.006
          25727171

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