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      Stroke and Bleeding in Atrial Fibrillation with Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Both atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increase the risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. However, these risks, and the effects of antithrombotic treatment, have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with both conditions. Using Danish national registries, we identified all patients discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation between 1997 and 2008. The risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding associated with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and with end-stage chronic kidney disease (i.e., disease requiring renal-replacement therapy) was estimated with the use of time-dependent Cox regression analyses. In addition, the effects of treatment with warfarin, aspirin, or both in patients with chronic kidney disease were compared with the effects in patients with no renal disease. Of 132,372 patients included in the analysis, 3587 (2.7%) had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and 901 (0.7%) required renal-replacement therapy at the time of inclusion. As compared with patients who did not have renal disease, patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease had an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 1.59; P<0.001), as did those requiring renal-replacement therapy (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.14; P<0.001); this risk was significantly decreased for both groups of patients with warfarin but not with aspirin. The risk of bleeding was also increased among patients who had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease or required renal-replacement therapy and was further increased with warfarin, aspirin, or both. Chronic kidney disease was associated with an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding among patients with atrial fibrillation. Warfarin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism among patients with chronic kidney disease, whereas warfarin and aspirin were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (Funded by the Lundbeck Foundation.).

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          Most cited references 16

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          Prevalence, age distribution, and gender of patients with atrial fibrillation. Analysis and implications.

          The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is related to age. Anticoagulation is highly effective in preventing stroke in patients with AF, but the risk of hemorrhage may be increased in older patients. We reviewed the available epidemiologic data to define the age and sex distribution of people with AF. From four large recent population-based surveys, we estimated the overall age- and gender-specific prevalence of AF. These estimates were applied to the recent US census data to calculate the number of men and women with AF in each age group. There are an estimated 2.2 million people in the United States with AF, with a median age of about 75 years. The prevalence of AF is 2.3% in people older than 40 years and 5.9% in those older than 65 years. Approximately 70% of individuals with AF are between 65 and 85 years of age. The absolute number of men and women with AF is about equal. After age 75 years, about 60% of the people with AF are women. In contrast to people with AF in the general population, patients with AF in recent anticoagulation trials had a mean age of 69 years, and only 20% were older than 75 years. The risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy in older individuals are important considerations in stroke prevention in AF.
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            Validity of Stroke Diagnoses in a National Register of Patients

            Background: Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses in the Danish National Register of Patients (DNRP). Methods: Subjects from a Danish cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 19,698), were crosslinked with the DNRP. The following International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes were used to identify possible strokes and TIAs: I60–I69 and G45. Two independent raters reviewed all cases. Positive predictive values of stroke, TIA and stroke subtypes were estimated by dividing the confirmed cases by the total number of cases located in the DNRP. Interrater reliability was tested using ĸ statistics. Results: Of 236 possible cerebrovascular events, 1 in 6 stroke diagnoses did not meet study criteria. The majority of events in the DNRP were registered as unspecified stroke (I64), n = 105 (44%), of which two thirds were diagnosed as ischemic stroke events by the raters. Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke had a positive predictive value from 74 to 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that the DNRP tends to overestimate the number of cerebrovascular events, while ischemic stroke is underestimated.
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              Risk Factors for Stroke and Efficacy of Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation

                (1994)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                August 16 2012
                August 16 2012
                : 367
                : 7
                : 625-635
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1105594
                22894575
                © 2012
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