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      Haemodialysis Fluid: Composition and Clinical Importance

      a , b

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Dialysis fluid composition, Haemodialysis, Bacterial contamination

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          Abstract

          Dialysis fluid is produced by the blending of treated water with electrolytes at the patients bed side. Its preparation and composition are important elements of treatment optimisation since many of the constituents play a role in patient well-being. Ideally the composition of the dialysis fluid should match that of plasma, but due to differences between patients, as well as the increasing number of elderly patients receiving treatment, have resulted in a move towards individualisation of the electrolyte and buffer composition to patient needs. Such individualisation is facilitated by the availability of technology, however it is not yet possible to individualise minor electrolytes, such as K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>. Early dialysis treatments were frequently accompanied by pyrogen reactions arising from bacterial contamination of the dialysis fluid. Today the focus is on the stimulation of mononuclear cells by bacterial fragments contributing to chronic inflammation associated with long-term haemodialysis therapy, and which has led to suggestions regarding the desirability of using ultra-pure dialysis fluid to prevent or to delay complications associated with their presence.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The effects of control of thermal balance on vascular stability in hemodialysis patients: results of the European randomized clinical trial.

          Many reports note that the use of cool dialysate has a protective effect on blood pressure during hemodialysis (HD) treatments. However, formal clinical trials in which dialysate temperature is tailored to the body temperature of appropriately selected hypotension-prone patients are lacking. We investigated the effect of thermal control of dialysate on hemodynamic stability in hypotension-prone patients selected from 27 centers in nine European countries. Patients were eligible for the study if they had symptomatic hypotensive episodes in 25% or more of their HD sessions, assessed during a prospective screening phase over 1 month. The study is designed as a randomized crossover trial with two phases and two treatment arms, each phase lasting 4 weeks. We used a device allowing the regulation of thermal balance (Blood Temperature Monitor; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homberg, Germany), by which we compared a procedure aimed at preventing any transfer of thermal energy between dialysate and extracorporeal blood (thermoneutral dialysis) with a procedure aimed at keeping body temperature unchanged (isothermic dialysis). One hundred sixteen HD patients were enrolled, and 95 patients completed the study. During thermoneutral dialysis (energy flow rate: DeltaE = -0.22 +/- 0.29 kJ/kg x h), 6 of 12 treatments (median) were complicated by hypotension, whereas during isothermic dialysis (energy flow rate: DeltaE = -0.90 +/- 0.35 kJ/kg x h), the median decreased to 3 of 12 treatments (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were more stable during the latter procedure. Isothermic dialysis was well tolerated by patients. Results show that active control of body temperature can significantly improve intradialytic tolerance in hypotension-prone patients. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
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            Optimal composition of the dialysate, with emphasis on its influence on blood pressure.

            Introduction. From the beginning of the dialysis era, the most appropriate composition of the dialysate has been one of the central topics in the delivery of dialysis treatment. A discussion is employed to achieve a consensus on key points relating to the composition of the dialysate, focusing on the relationships with blood pressure behaviour. Sodium balance is the cornerstone of intra-dialysis cardiovascular stability and good inter-dialysis blood pressure control. Hypernatric dialysis carries the risk of positive sodium balance, with the consequent possibility of the worsening sense of thirst and hypertension. Conversely, hyponatric dialysis may lead to negative sodium balance, with the possibility of intra-dialysis cardiovascular instability and 'disequilibrium' symptoms including fatigue, muscle cramps and headache. The goal is to remove with dialysis the exact amount of sodium that has accumulated in the inter-dialysis interval. The conductivity kinetic model is applicable on-line at each dialysis session and has been proved to be able to improve intra-dialytic cardiovascular stability in hypotension-prone patients. Therefore, it should be regarded as a promising tool to be implemented in everyday clinical practice. Serum potassium concentration and variations during dialysis treatment certainly play a role in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia. Potassium profiling, with a constant gradient between plasma and dialysate, should be implemented in clinical practice to minimize the arrhythmogenic potential of dialysis. Calcium plays a role both in myocardial contractility and in peripheral vascular resistance. Therefore, an increase in dialysate calcium concentration may be useful in cardiac compromised hypotension-prone patients. Acid-buffering by means of base supplementation is one of the major roles of dialysis. Bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate should be personalized in order to reach a midweek pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration of 22 mmol/l. The role of convective dialysis techniques in cardiovascular stability is still under debate. It has been demonstrated that dialysate temperature and sodium balance play a role and this should be taken into account. Whether removal of vasoactive, middle-sized compounds by convection plays an independent role in improving cardiovascular stability is still uncertain. The prescription of dialysis fluid is moving from a pre-fixed, standard dialysate solution to individualization of electrolyte and buffer composition, not only during the dialysis session, but also within the same session (profiling) in order to provide patients with an optimal blood purification coupled with a high degree of tolerability.
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              Calcium exposure and removal in chronic hemodialysis patients.

              The risks associated with calcium exposure in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are becoming increasingly apparent. Current K/DOQI guidelines recommend an absolute maximum elemental calcium load of 2,000 mg/d, including calcium-containing medication and a maximum dialysate calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L (to avoid intradialytic calcium loading). The goal of this study was to characterize the total exposure to calcium from all sources that chronic HD patients are exposed to. We studied 52 patients. Each was requested to complete a 3-day food diary for analysis of daily calcium intake; 24-hour urine collections were taken and analyzed for calcium content. All patients underwent HD using Hospal Integra (Lyon, France) dialysis monitors, bicarbonate buffering, and dialysate sodium and calcium concentrations of 134 mmol/L and 1.25 mmol/L, respectively. Blood was sampled before and after HD for total serum calcium, albumin, bicarbonate, and phosphate, in addition to ionized calcium level measured at the bedside using a portable electrolyte analyzer. Calcium flux was determined from measurements of ionized calcium levels in dialyzer inlet samples and those in continuous partial waste dialysis collection (with reference to total waste dialysate and ultrafiltration volumes). There was marked interpatient variability of total calcium exposure; the mean was 2,346 +/- 293 mg (range, 230 to 7,309 mg) per day. The majority of enteral calcium exposure was from calcium-containing phosphate binders, with diet providing only a mean load of 581 +/- 34 mg (range, 230 to 1,309 mg). Calcium removal was evident in 83% of patients. Mean calcium flux was -187 +/- 232 mg (range, -486 to 784 mg). There was a linear correlation observed between the amount of calcium removed during dialysis and the predialysis ionized plasma calcium concentration, r2 = 0.42, P < .001 (calculated from actual measured dialysate ionized calcium concentration). This shows that calcium flux across the dialysis membrane is determined by the diffusion gradient. The amount of calcium removed during dialysis was found to be independent of exogenous calcium load. These results support previous reported data showing that the majority of HD patients are continually experiencing calcium overload. This may have a contributory role in the development of vascular calcification. In contrast to recent K/DOQI recommendations, an upper dialysate concentration of 1.25 mmol/L may not be ideal for every patient. To minimize the effects of exogenous calcium overload, dialysate concentrations should be prescribed with reference to plasma calcium levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8237-7
                978-3-318-01434-1
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2007
                December 2006
                14 December 2006
                : 25
                : 1
                : 62-68
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Clinical Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; bDepartment of Nephrology, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
                Article
                96400 Blood Purif 2007;25:62–68
                10.1159/000096400
                17170540
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 31, Pages: 7
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96400
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