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      Human Luteinized Granulosa Cells—A Cellular Model for the Human Corpus Luteum

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          Abstract

          In the ovary, the corpus luteum (CL) forms a temporal structure. Luteinized mural granulosa cells (GCs), which stem from the ruptured follicle, are the main cells of the CL. They can be isolated from follicular fluid of woman undergoing in vitro fertilization. In culture, human GCs are viable for several days and produce progesterone, yet eventually steroid production stops and GCs with increasing time in culture undergo changes reminiscent of the ones observed during the demise of the CL in vivo. This short review summarizes the general use of human GCs as a model for the primate CL and some of the data from our lab, which indicate that viability, functionality, survival and death of GCs can be regulated by local signal molecules (e.g., oxytocin and PEDF) and the extracellular matrix (e.g., via the proteoglycan decorin). We further summarize studies, which identified autophagocytotic events in human GCs linked to the activation of an ion channel. More recent studies identified a form of regulated cell death, namely necroptosis. This form of cell death may, in addition to apoptosis, contribute to the demise of the human CL. We believe that human GCs are a unique window into the human CL. Studies employing these cells may lead to the identification of molecular events and novel targets, which may allow to interfere with CL functions.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by fumonisins. Implications for diseases associated with Fusarium moniliforme.

          Culture materials and grains contaminated with certain isolates of Fusarium moniliforme cause equine leucoencephalomalacia, porcine pulmonary edema syndrome, and liver cancer in rats. The causative agents are thought to be a family of compounds called fumonisins, which bear considerable structural similarity to the long-chain (sphingoid) base backbones of sphingolipids. Incubation of rat hepatocytes with fumonisins inhibited incorporation of [14C]serine into the sphingosine moiety of cellular sphingolipids with an IC50 of 0.1 microM for fumonisin B1. In contrast, fumonisin B1 increased the amount of the biosynthetic intermediate sphinganine, which suggests that fumonisins inhibit the conversion of [14C]sphinganine to N-acyl-[14C]sphinganines, a step that is thought to precede introduction of the 4,5-trans double bond of sphingosine (Merrill, A.H., Jr. and Wang, E. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 3764-3769). In agreement with this mechanism, fumonisin B1 inhibited the activity of sphingosine N-acyltransferase (ceramide synthase) in rat liver microsomes with 50% inhibition at approximately 0.1 microM and reduced the conversion of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]ceramide by intact hepatocytes. As far as we are aware, this is the first discovery of a naturally occurring inhibitor of this step of sphingolipid metabolism. These findings suggest that disruption of the de novo pathway of sphingolipid biosynthesis may be a critical event in the diseases that have been associated with consumption of fumonisins.
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            The science behind 25 years of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

            To allow selection of embryos for transfer after in vitro fertilization, ovarian stimulation is usually carried out with exogenous gonadotropins. To compensate for changes induced by stimulation, GnRH analog cotreatment, oral contraceptive pretreatment, late follicular phase human chorionic gonadotropin, and luteal phase progesterone supplementation are usually added. These approaches render ovarian stimulation complex and costly. The stimulation of multiple follicular development disrupts the physiology of follicular development, with consequences for the oocyte, embryo, and endometrium. In recent years, recombinant gonadotropin preparations have become available, and novel stimulation protocols with less detrimental effects have been developed. In this article, the scientific background to current approaches to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization is reviewed. After a brief discussion of the relevant aspect of ovarian physiology, the development, application, and consequences of ovarian stimulation strategies are reviewed in detail.
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              GnRH agonist for triggering of final oocyte maturation: time for a change of practice?

              GnRH agonist (GnRHa) triggering has been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) compared with hCG triggering; however, initially a poor reproductive outcome was reported after GnRHa triggering, due to an apparently uncorrectable luteal phase deficiency. Therefore, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. Studies now report a luteal phase rescue, with a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. This narrative review is based on expert presentations and subsequent group discussions supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Moreover, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and analysed either in fresh IVF cycles with embryo transfer (ET), oocyte donation cycles or cycles without ET; risk differences were calculated regarding pregnancy rate and OHSS rate. In fresh IVF cycles with ET (9 RCTs) no OHSS was reported after GnRHa triggering [0% incidence in the GnRHa group: risk difference 5% (with 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.02)]. Importantly, the delivery rate improved significantly after modified luteal support [6% risk difference in favour of the HCG group (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.2)] when compared with initial studies with conventional luteal support [18% risk difference (95% CI: -0.36 to 0.01)]. In oocyte donation cycles (4 RCTs) the OHSS incidence is 0% [10% risk difference (95% CI: 0.02-0.40)]. GnRHa triggering is a valid alternative to hCG triggering, resulting in an elimination of OHSS. After modified luteal support there is now a non-significant difference of 6% in delivery rate in favour of hCG triggering.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                09 July 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Biomedical Center Munich (BMC), Cell Biology, Anatomy III, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) , Planegg, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lane K. Christenson, University of Kansas Medical Center, United States

                Reviewed by: Jürgen Michael Weiss, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, University of Lucerne, Switzerland; Hao Chen, Guangdong University of Technology, China; Misung Jo, University of Kentucky, United States

                *Correspondence: Artur Mayerhofer Mayerhofer@ 123456lrz.uni-muenchen.de

                This article was submitted to Reproduction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00452
                6629826
                Copyright © 2019 Bagnjuk and Mayerhofer.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 7, Words: 5553
                Funding
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 10.13039/501100001659
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Mini Review

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