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      A Cross-Sectional Study on Biochemical Parameters of Bone Turnover and Vitamin D Metabolites in Healthy Dutch Children and Young Adults

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          Aim: To provide reference data of biochemical markers of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites for children and young adults. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 176 healthy Dutch children and young adults (age range 7.6–25.3 years) to assess serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphate, osteocalcin, collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptide, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen , 25-hydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub>, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub> levels. Cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen were assessed in 286 subjects (age range 1.4–25.3 years). Results: Calcium and vitamin D levels were independent of age. The peak concentrations for collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptide, cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were found during puberty, in girls approximately 2.5 years earlier than in boys. Strong correlations were found between the markers of bone turnover, while no correlation was found between the markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Conclusions: Single measurements of bone markers cannot predict bone density. Reference data according to gender, age, and Tanner stage are given which allow calculating standard deviation scores adjusted for age and gender.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Comparison of different models for interpreting bone mineral density measurements using DXA and MRI technology.

          Bone mineral density measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly expressed as areal density (g/cm2). However, areal BMD (BMDareal) is dependent on bone size and this can lead to erroneous interpretations of BMD values. We have previously presented a simple method for calculating apparent volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol) using ancillary DXA-derived data. In the present study we tested the validity of our model using in vivo volumetric data obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar vertebrae. BMDareal and BMDvol of L3 were measured from sixteen pairs of identical twins (24 men, 8 women), aged 25-69 years. The dimensions of the lumbar vertebra L3 were measured from MR images and BMD values were corrected for these dimensions. The DXA-derived apparent volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol) correlated moderately with MRI-derived BMDs (r values from 0.665 to 0.822). In contrast to BMDareal, BMDvol and MRI-derived BMDs were not related to body size variables. All these volume-corrected BMDs diminished the erroneous effect of vertebral size on areal BMD. We conclude that the simple DXA-derived BMDvol can be used for normalization of bone mineral density values in subjects of different body sizes, and especially in growing children.
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            Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study.

            Strain magnitude may be more important than the number of loading cycles in controlling bone adaptation to loading. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 12 month longitudinal cohort study comparing bone mass and bone turnover in elite and subelite track and field athletes and less active controls. The cohort comprised 50 power athletes (sprinters, jumpers, hurdlers, multievent athletes; 23 women, 27 men), 61 endurance athletes (middle-distance runners, distance runners; 30 women, 31 men), and 55 nonathlete controls (28 women, 27 men) aged 17-26 years. Total bone mineral content (BMC), regional bone mineral density (BMD), and soft tissue composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was assessed by serum osteocalcin (human immunoradiometric assay) indicative of bone formation, and urinary pyridinium crosslinks (high-performance liquid chromatography) indicative of bone resorption. Questionnaires quantified menstrual, dietary and physical activity characteristics. Baseline results showed that power athletes had higher regional BMD at lower limb, lumbar spine, and upper limb sites compared with controls (p < 0.05). Endurance athletes had higher BMD than controls in lower limb sites only (p < 0.05). Maximal differences in BMD between athletes and controls were noted at sites loaded by exercise. Male and female power athletes had greater bone density at the lumbar spine than endurance athletes. Over the 12 months, both athletes and controls showed modest but significant increases in total body BMC and femur BMD (p < 0.001). Changes in bone density were independent of exercise status except at the lumbar spine. At this site, power athletes gained significantly more bone density than the other groups. Levels of bone formation were not elevated in athletes and levels of bone turnover were not predictive of subsequent changes in bone mass. Our results provide further support for the concept that bone response to mechanical loading depends upon the bone site and the mode of exercise.
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              Changes in Bone Mineral Density, Body Composition, and Lipid Metabolism during Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in Children with GH Deficiency

               A Boot (1997)

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                30 May 2002
                : 57
                : 5-6
                : 170-179
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Subdivision Endocrinology, Sophia Children’s Hospital Rotterdam, and Departments of bRadiology, cEpidemiology and Biostatistics, and dInternal Medicine, Subdivision Endocrinology, University Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                58378 Horm Res 2002;57:170–179
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 46, Pages: 10
                Original Paper


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