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      Pharmacological management of acute bronchiolitis

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          Abstract

          This article reviews the current knowledge base related to the pharmacological treatments for acute bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory illness affecting infants worldwide. The mainstays of therapy include airway support, supplemental oxygen, and support of fluids and nutrition. Frequently tried pharmacological interventions, such as ribavirin, nebulized bronchodilators, and systemic corticosteroids, have not been proven to benefit patients with bronchiolitis. Antibiotics do not improve the clinical course of patients with bronchiolitis, and should be used only in those patients with proven concurrent bacterial infection. Exogenous surfactant and heliox therapy also cannot be recommended for routine use, but surfactant replacement holds promise and should be further studied.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations among US children, 1980-1996.

          Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes more lower respiratory tract infections, often manifested as bronchiolitis, among young children than any other pathogen. Few national estimates exist of the hospitalizations attributable to RSV, and recent advances in prophylaxis warrant an update of these estimates. To describe rates of bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations and to estimate current hospitalizations associated with RSV infection. Descriptive analysis of US National Hospital Discharge Survey data from 1980 through 1996. Children younger than 5 years who were hospitalized in short-stay, non-federal hospitals for bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalization rates by age and year. During the 17-year study period, an estimated 1.65 million hospitalizations for bronchiolitis occurred among children younger than 5 years, accounting for 7.0 million inpatient days. Fifty-seven percent of these hospitalizations occurred among children younger than 6 months and 81 % among those younger than 1 year. Among children younger than 1 year, annual bronchiolitis hospitalization rates increased 2.4-fold, from 12.9 per 1000 in 1980 to 31.2 per 1000 in 1996. During 1988-1996, infant hospitalization rates for bronchiolitis increased significantly (P for trend <.001), while hospitalization rates for lower respiratory tract diseases excluding bronchiolitis did not vary significantly (P for trend = .20). The proportion of hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses among children younger than 1 year associated with bronchiolitis increased from 22.2% in 1980 to 47.4% in 1996; among total hospitalizations, this proportion increased from 5.4% to 16.4%. Averaging bronchiolitis hospitalizations during 1994-1996 and assuming that RSV was the etiologic agent in 50% to 80% of November through April hospitalizations, an estimated 51, 240 to 81, 985 annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations among children younger than 1 year were related to RSV infection. During 1980-1996, rates of hospitalization of infants with bronchiolitis increased substantially, as did the proportion of total and lower respiratory tract hospitalizations associated with bronchiolitis. Annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations associated with RSV infection among infants may be greater than previous estimates for RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia hospitalizations combined.
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            Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis.

              (2006)
            Bronchiolitis is a disorder most commonly caused in infants by viral lower respiratory tract infection. It is the most common lower respiratory infection in this age group. It is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining small airways, increased mucus production, and bronchospasm. The American Academy of Pediatrics convened a committee composed of primary care physicians and specialists in the fields of pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine, epidemiology, and medical informatics. The committee partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center to develop a comprehensive review of the evidence-based literature related to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. The resulting evidence report and other sources of data were used to formulate clinical practice guideline recommendations. This guideline addresses the diagnosis of bronchiolitis as well as various therapeutic interventions including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents, hydration, chest physiotherapy, and oxygen. Recommendations are made for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection with palivizumab and the control of nosocomial spread of infection. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent comprehensive peer review before it was approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics. This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance in the management of children with bronchiolitis. Rather, it is intended to assist clinicians in decision-making. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with this condition. These recommendations may not provide the only appropriate approach to the management of children with bronchiolitis.
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              Rates of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection among children in medicaid.

              To determine rates of hospitalization associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children with and without specific medical conditions. Retrospective cohort study of all children <3 years old enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program from July 1989 through June 1993 (248,652 child-years). During the first year of life, the estimated number of RSV hospitalizations per 1000 children was 388 for those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 92 for those with congenital heart disease, 70 for children born at < or = 28 weeks' gestation, 66 for those born at 29 to <33 weeks, 57 for those born at 33 to <36 weeks, and 30 for children born at term with no underlying medical condition. In the second year of life, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia had an estimated 73 RSV hospitalizations per 1000 children, whereas those with congenital heart disease had 18 and those with prematurity 16 per 1000. Overall, 53% of RSV hospitalizations occurred in healthy children born at term. Children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have high rates of RSV hospitalization until 24 months of age. In contrast, after the first year of life, children with congenital heart disease or prematurity have rates no higher than that of children at low risk who are <12 months old.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                October 2008
                October 2008
                : 4
                : 5
                : 895-903
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Giovanni Piedimonte, Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9214, Morgantown, WV 26506-9214, USA, Tel +1 304 2934451, Fax +1 304 2934454, Email gpiedimonte@ 123456hsc.wvu.edu
                Article
                tcrm-4-895
                2621418
                19209271
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                interventions, therapy, respiratory syncytial virus, pharmacological, bronchiolitis

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