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      Effects of a New Bioceramic Material on Human Apical Papilla Cells


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          Background: The development of materials with bioregenerative properties is critically important for vital pulp therapies and regenerative endodontic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of a new endodontic biomaterial, PulpGuard, in comparison with two other biomaterials widely used in endodontic procedures, ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine. Methods: Apical papilla cells (APCs) were isolated from third molars with incomplete rhizogenesis from patients with orthodontic indication for dental extraction. Cultured APCs were incubated for 24, 48, or 72 h with different dilutions of eluates prepared from the three materials. Cellular viability, mobility, and proliferation were assessed in vitro using the Alamar Blue assay and a wound-healing test. The cells were also cultured in direct contact with the surface of each material. These were then analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the surface chemical composition was determined by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cells incubated in the presence of eluates extracted from ProRoot MTA and PulpGuard presented rates of viability comparable to those of control cells; in contrast, undiluted Biodentine eluates induced a significant reduction of cellular viability. The wound-healing assay revealed that eluates from ProRoot MTA and PulpGuard allowed for unhindered cellular migration and proliferation. Cellular adhesion was observed on the surface of all materials tested. Consistent with their disclosed composition, EDS analysis found high relative abundance of calcium in Biodentine and ProRoot MTA and high abundance of silicon in PulpGuard. Significant amounts of zinc and calcium were also present in PulpGuard discs. Concerning solubility, Biodentine and ProRoot MTA presented mild weight loss after eluate extraction, while PulpGuard discs showed significant water uptake. Conclusions: PulpGuard displayed a good in vitro cytocompatibility profile and did not significantly affect the proliferation and migration rates of APCs. Cells cultured in the presence of PulpGuard eluates displayed a similar profile to those cultured with eluates from the widely used endodontic cement ProRoot MTA.

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          Mediation of biomaterial-cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review.

          An appropriate cellular response to implanted surfaces is essential for tissue regeneration and integration. It is well described that implanted materials are immediately coated with proteins from blood and interstitial fluids, and it is through this adsorbed layer that cells sense foreign surfaces. Hence, it is the adsorbed proteins, rather than the surface itself, to which cells initially respond. Diverse studies using a range of materials have demonstrated the pivotal role of extracellular adhesion proteins--fibronectin and vitronectin in particular--in cell adhesion, morphology, and migration. These events underlie the subsequent responses required for tissue repair, with the nature of cell surface interactions contributing to survival, growth, and differentiation. The pattern in which adhesion proteins and other bioactive molecules adsorb thus elicits cellular reactions specific to the underlying physicochemical properties of the material. Accordingly, in vitro studies generally demonstrate favorable cell responses to charged, hydrophilic surfaces, corresponding to superior adsorption and bioactivity of adhesion proteins. This review illustrates the mediation of cell responses to biomaterials by adsorbed proteins, in the context of osteoblasts and selected materials used in orthopedic implants and bone tissue engineering. It is recognized, however, that the periimplant environment in vivo will differ substantially from the cell-biomaterial interface in vitro. Hence, one of the key issues yet to be resolved is that of the interface composition actually encountered by osteoblasts within the sequence of inflammation and bone regeneration.
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            Characterization of the apical papilla and its residing stem cells from human immature permanent teeth: a pilot study.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from the pulp tissue of permanent teeth (dental pulp stem cells or DPSCs) and deciduous teeth (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth). We recently discovered another type of MSCs in the apical papilla of human immature permanent teeth termed stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP). Here, we further characterized the apical papilla tissue and stem cell properties of SCAP using histologic, immunohistochemical, and immunocytofluorescent analyses. We found that the apical papilla is distinctive to the pulp in terms of containing less cellular and vascular components than those in the pulp. Cells in the apical papilla proliferated 2- to 3-fold greater than those in the pulp in organ cultures. Both SCAP and DPSCs were as potent in osteo/dentinogenic differentiation as MSCs from bone marrows, whereas they were weaker in adipogenic potential. The immunophenotype of SCAP is similar to that of DPSCs on the osteo/dentinogenic and growth factor receptor gene profiles. Double-staining experiments showed that STRO-1 coexpressed with dentinogenic markers such as bone sialophosphoprotein, osteocalcin, and growth factors FGFR1 and TGFbetaRI in cultured SCAP. Additionally, SCAP express a wide variety of neurogenic markers such as nestin and neurofilament M upon stimulation with a neurogenic medium. We conclude that SCAP are similar to DPSCs but a distinct source of potent dental stem/progenitor cells. Their implications in root development and apexogenesis are discussed.
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              Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate.

              To report the hydration mechanism of white mineral trioxide aggregate (White MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA). The chemical constitution of white MTA was studied by viewing the powder in polished sections under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydration of both white MTA and white Portland cement (PC) was studied by characterizing cement hydrates viewed under the SEM, plotting atomic ratios, performing quantitative energy dispersive analyses with X-ray (EDAX) and by calculation of the amount of anhydrous clinker minerals using the Bogue calculation. Un-hydrated MTA was composed of impure tri-calcium and di-calcium silicate and bismuth oxide. The aluminate phase was scarce. On hydration the white PC produced a dense structure made up of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, monosulphate and ettringite as the main hydration products. The un-reacted cement grain was coated with a layer of hydrated cement. In contrast MTA produced a porous structure on hydration. Levels of ettringite and monosulphate were low. Bismuth oxide was present as un-reacted powder but also incorporated with the calcium silicate hydrate. White MTA was deficient in alumina suggesting that the material was not prepared in a rotary kiln. On hydration this affected the production of ettringite and monosulphate usually formed on hydration of PC. The bismuth affected the hydration mechanism of MTA; it formed part of the structure of C-S-H and also affected the precipitation of calcium hydroxide in the hydrated paste. The microstructure of hydrated MTA would likely be weaker when compared with that of PC.

                Author and article information

                J Funct Biomater
                J Funct Biomater
                Journal of Functional Biomaterials
                16 December 2018
                December 2018
                : 9
                : 4
                : 74
                [1 ]CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3004-504, Portugal; disequeira@ 123456gmail.com (D.B.S.); cseabra@ 123456cnc.uc.pt (C.M.S.); cardoso.alc@ 123456gmail.com (A.L.C.); jmpessa@ 123456gmail.com (J.P.)
                [2 ]Institute for Interdisciplinary Research (IIIUC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-789, Portugal
                [3 ]PhD Program in Experimental Biology and Biomedicine (PDBEB), University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3004-504, Portugal
                [4 ]Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-075 Portugal; ppalma@ 123456uc.pt
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jsantos@ 123456fmed.uc.pt ; Tel.: +351-239-249-151
                Author information
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 22 November 2018
                : 13 December 2018

                biocompatibility,regenerative endodontics,cytotoxicity,calcium silicate cements,pulpguard,scaps


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