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      A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets.

          Methods

          A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study.

          Results

          The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated.

          Conclusion

          The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable. The FDC tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release can be a convenient therapeutic option in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring a combination approach.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone.

          The efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, added to ongoing metformin therapy, were assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA(1c) [A1C] >or=7 and or=1,500 mg/day) were randomly assigned to receive the addition of placebo or sitagliptin 100 mg once-daily in a 1:2 ratio for 24 weeks. Patients exceeding specific glycemic limits were provided rescue therapy (pioglitazone) until the end of the study. The efficacy analyses were based on an all-patients-treated population using an ANCOVA and excluded data obtained after glycemic rescue. At week 24, sitagliptin treatment led to significant reductions compared with placebo in A1C (-0.65%), fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postmeal glucose. Fasting insulin, fasting C-peptide, fasting proinsulin-to-insulin ratio, postmeal insulin and C-peptide areas under the curve (AUCs), postmeal insulin AUC-to-glucose AUC ratio, homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were significantly improved with sitagliptin relative to placebo. A significantly greater proportion of patients achieved an A1C <7% with sitagliptin (47.0%) than with placebo (18.3%). There was no increased risk of hypoglycemia or gastrointestinal adverse experiences with sitagliptin compared with placebo. Body weight decreased similarly with sitagliptin and placebo. Sitagliptin 100 mg once-daily added to ongoing metformin therapy was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control with metformin alone.
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            Oral pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.

            The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on the comparative effectiveness and safety of type 2 diabetes medications. This guideline is based on a systematic evidence review evaluating literature published on this topic from 1966 through April 2010 that was identified by using MEDLINE (updated through December 2010), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Searches were limited to English-language publications. The clinical outcomes evaluated for this guideline included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, cerebrovascular morbidity, neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations by using the American College of Physicians clinical practice guidelines grading system. RECOMMENDATION 1: ACP recommends that clinicians add oral pharmacologic therapy in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when lifestyle modifications, including diet, exercise, and weight loss, have failed to adequately improve hyperglycemia (Grade: strong recommendation; high-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: ACP recommends that clinicians prescribe monotherapy with metformin for initial pharmacologic therapy to treat most patients with type 2 diabetes (Grade: strong recommendation; high-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: ACP recommends that clinicians add a second agent to metformin to treat patients with persistent hyperglycemia when lifestyle modifications and monotherapy with metformin fail to control hyperglycemia (Grade: strong recommendation; high-quality evidence).
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              A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial evaluating the optimal dose, efficacy and safety of LC 15-0444 in patients with type 2 diabetes.

              The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal dose, efficacy and safety of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) inhibitor, LC15-0444, in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated by diet and exercise. This study was a double-blind, randomized, multicenter and parallel-group, dose-range finding study. We enrolled 145 patients (91 men and 54 women) with a median age of 53 years and a median body mass index of 25.1 kg/m(2) . The median baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was 8.1 mmol/l, the median HbA1c was 7.9% and the median time since the diagnosis of diabetes was 3 years. After 2 weeks of an exercise/diet programme followed by 2 weeks of a placebo period, the subjects were randomized to one of the four following groups for a 12-week active treatment period: placebo and 50, 100 or 200 mg of LC15-0444. All three doses of LC15-0444 significantly reduced the HbA1c from baseline compared to the placebo group (-0.06 vs. -0.98, -0.74 and -0.78% in the placebo and 50, 100 and 200 mg groups, respectively), without a significant difference between the doses. Subjects with a higher baseline HbA1c (≥8.5%) had a greater reduction in HbA1c. Insulin secretory function, as assessed using homeostasis model assessment-beta cell, C-peptide and the insulinogenic index, improved significantly with LC15-0444 treatment. Insulin sensitivity, as assessed using homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, also improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment. The 50 and 200 mg groups had significantly reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at 12 weeks compared to the placebo group. No dosage of LC15-0444 affected weight or waist circumference. The incidences of adverse events were similar in all study subjects. LC15-0444 monotherapy (50 mg for 12 weeks) improved the HbA1c, FPG level, oral glucose tolerance test results, β-cell function and insulin sensitivity measures, and was well tolerated in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                04 February 2015
                : 9
                : 729-736
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, CHA University School of Medicine and CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]LG Life Sciences, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyung-Sang Yu, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Korea, Tel +82 2 2072 1920, Fax +82 2 742 9252, Email ksyu@ 123456snu.ac.kr

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-9-729
                10.2147/DDDT.S75980
                4324327
                © 2015 Park et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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