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      Comparative study of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of closely related cave and surface Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Crustacea)


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          The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts. We sampled two surface populations from the surface section of the sinking Pivka River (central Slovenia, Europe), i.e. locality Pivka Polje, and locality Planina Polje, and one cave population from the subterranean section of the sinking Pivka River, i.e. locality Planina Cave. Animals were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in individuals snap-frozen in the field immediately after collection. Acetylcholinesterase is likely related to animals’ locomotor activity, while GST activity is related to the metabolic activity of an organism. Our study shows significantly lower AChE and GST activities in the cave population in comparison to both surface A. aquaticus populations. This confirms the assumption that cave A. aquaticus have lower locomotor and metabolic activity than surface A. aquaticus in their respective natural environments. In surface A. aquaticus populations, seasonal fluctuations in GST activity were observed, while these were less pronounced in individuals from the more stable cave environment. On the other hand, AChE activity was generally season-independent in all populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in A. aquaticus. Our results show that among closely related cave and surface A. aquaticus populations also physiological differences are present besides the morphological and genetic. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the biology of A. aquaticus and cave crustaceans in general.

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          Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing

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            Glutathione transferases.

            This review describes the three mammalian glutathione transferase (GST) families, namely cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal GST, the latter now designated MAPEG. Besides detoxifying electrophilic xenobiotics, such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents, these transferases inactivate endogenous alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, quinones, epoxides, and hydroperoxides formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. These enzymes are also intimately involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, testosterone, and progesterone, as well as the degradation of tyrosine. Among their substrates, GSTs conjugate the signaling molecules 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and 4-hydroxynonenal with glutathione, and consequently they antagonize expression of genes trans-activated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Through metabolism of 15d-PGJ2, GST may enhance gene expression driven by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Cytosolic human GST exhibit genetic polymorphisms and this variation can increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis and inflammatory disease. Polymorphisms in human MAPEG are associated with alterations in lung function and increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Targeted disruption of murine genes has demonstrated that cytosolic GST isoenzymes are broadly cytoprotective, whereas MAPEG proteins have proinflammatory activities. Furthermore, knockout of mouse GSTA4 and GSTZ1 leads to overexpression of transferases in the Alpha, Mu, and Pi classes, an observation suggesting they are part of an adaptive mechanism that responds to endogenous chemical cues such as 4-hydroxynonenal and tyrosine degradation products. Consistent with this hypothesis, the promoters of cytosolic GST and MAPEG genes contain antioxidant response elements through which they are transcriptionally activated during exposure to Michael reaction acceptors and oxidative stress.
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              Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

              Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research since its first publication in 1985. <br> This latest edition has been comprehensively rewritten and updated (over 80% of the text is new), while maintaining the clarity of its predecessor. There is expanded coverage of isoprostanes and related compounds, mechanisms of oxidative damage to DNA and proteins (and the repair of such damage), the free radical theory of aging and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell death, human reproduction, and other important biological events. Greater emphasis has also been placed on the methods available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls), as well as the importance of antioxidants in the human diet. <br> This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, clinicians and researchers, and an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                9 May 2017
                : 12
                : 5
                : e0176746
                [001]University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, FRANCE
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: AJ PZ.

                • Data curation: AJ PZ SP.

                • Formal analysis: ZF DS.

                • Investigation: AJ DS.

                • Methodology: AJ.

                • Resources: AJ.

                • Software: DS ZF.

                • Supervision: AJ PZ.

                • Validation: SP.

                • Visualization: ZF AJ.

                • Writing – original draft: AJ.

                • Writing – review & editing: SP PZ ZF.

                Author information
                © 2017 Jemec et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 10 January 2017
                : 14 April 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 14
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004329, Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS;
                Award ID: P1-0184
                Research presented in this paper was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency, through Research program “Integrative zoology and speleobiology (P1- 0184)”. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Chromatographic Techniques
                Affinity Chromatography
                Amino Acid Specific Chromatography
                Glutathione Chromatography
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biological Locomotion
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Biological Locomotion
                Earth Sciences
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiological Processes
                Physiological Adaptation
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiological Processes
                Physiological Adaptation
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Metabolic Pathways
                Xenobiotic Metabolism
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Water Quality
                Dissolved Oxygen
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Oxygen Metabolism
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.



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