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      Novel Phototherapy Kiosk Shows Promise as a Treatment Option for Low Vitamin D

      1 , 2 , 2 , 2

      Military Medicine

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          ABSTRACT

          Introduction

          The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a phototherapy kiosk (PK) to engage community adults in health promotion and to stimulate production of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH)D as effectively as a vitamin D3 oral supplement (OS). Although optimal production of vitamin D comes from sun exposure, ultraviolet B radiation with a wavelength of 290 to 320 nm penetrates exposed skin and may produce vitamin D3 using a PK.

          Materials and Methods

          A prospective study was conducted with adults randomized to either six PK treatments or D3 OS for 10 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D was drawn at baseline, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks. Primary outcome was serum 25(OH)D level. Mann–Whitney test was used to assess continuous data and Chi squared test for pairwise comparisons of categorical data. Significance was set at P < .05.

          Results

          With 18% attrition, final sample size was 88; OS, n = 45, PK, n = 43. Sample was mostly female (60%), median age 35 years, with no differences observed between groups for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, military affiliation, or season of enrollment. Median daily intake of calcium and vitamin D was well below the recommended daily allowance for each nutrient, and group. Baseline median serum 25(OH)D levels were similar. By 10 weeks, PK median level was 30 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 25.8-37.0) and OS was 26 ng/mL (IQR 21.5-30.5), P = .02. The difference in 25(OH)D levels persisted at 14 weeks; the PK group returned to baseline, 27 ng/mL (IQR 22.0-32.5), and OS group declined to 21 ng/mL (IQR 17.0-30.0), P = .02.

          Conclusion

          Programmed ultraviolet B phototherapy appears to be an efficacious alternative to oral vitamin D supplementation with consistent use.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

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          Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individuals who are not at risk for deficiency or to prescribe vitamin D to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection.
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            Effect size estimates: current use, calculations, and interpretation.

            The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001, American Psychological Association, 2010) calls for the reporting of effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Estimates of effect size are useful for determining the practical or theoretical importance of an effect, the relative contributions of factors, and the power of an analysis. We surveyed articles published in 2009 and 2010 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, noting the statistical analyses reported and the associated reporting of effect size estimates. Effect sizes were reported for fewer than half of the analyses; no article reported a confidence interval for an effect size. The most often reported analysis was analysis of variance, and almost half of these reports were not accompanied by effect sizes. Partial η2 was the most commonly reported effect size estimate for analysis of variance. For t tests, 2/3 of the articles did not report an associated effect size estimate; Cohen's d was the most often reported. We provide a straightforward guide to understanding, selecting, calculating, and interpreting effect sizes for many types of data and to methods for calculating effect size confidence intervals and power analysis.
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              A Test of Missing Completely at Random for Multivariate Data with Missing Values

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Military Medicine
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0026-4075
                1930-613X
                January 01 2021
                January 25 2021
                January 25 2021
                January 01 2021
                January 25 2021
                January 25 2021
                : 186
                : Supplement_1
                : 722-728
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Nursing Science & Clinical Inquiry, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA
                [2 ]The Geneva Foundation, Tacoma, WA 98402, USA
                Article
                10.1093/milmed/usaa411
                © 2021

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