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      Clinical Application of Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) in Early Detection of Airway Changes in Smokers

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          Abstract

          The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive method to assess airway function by emitting oscillatory signals into the respiratory tract during tidal ventilation. This opinion piece discusses the current use, trialled modification and future directions in utilizing FOT as a novel diagnostic tool for early detection of small airway changes in smokers. The published evidence to date has shown that FOT parameters could be a sensitive diagnostic tool to detect early respiratory changes in smokers. Multiple frequencies and the frequency dependence of resistance and reactance can provide the most valuable and early information regarding smoking induced changes in airways. Considering its non-invasiveness, lower level of discomfort to patients than spirometry, feasibility, and cost effectiveness, it could be the first-choice diagnostic technique for detection of early respiratory changes in smokers. The finding of FOT could further be supported and correlated with inflammatory markers.

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          Most cited references 78

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          Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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            The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments

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              Epidemiology of COPD.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is responsible for early mortality, high death rates and significant cost to health systems. The projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide (from sixth in 1990) and fifth leading cause of years lost through early mortality or handicap (disability-adjusted life years) (12th in 1990). Active smoking remains the main risk factor, but other factors are becoming better known, such as occupational factors, infections and the role of air pollution. Prevalence of COPD varies according to country, age and sex. This disease is also associated with significant comorbidities. COPD is a disorder that includes various phenotypes, the continuum of which remains under debate. The major challenge in the coming years will be to prevent onset of smoking along with early detection of the disease in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                27 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 9
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia; Prem.Bhattarai@ 123456utas.edu.au (P.B.); Stephen.Myers@ 123456utas.edu.au (S.M.); collin.chia@ 123456ths.tas.gov.au (C.C.); heinrich.weber@ 123456ths.tas.gov.au (H.C.W.); sally.young@ 123456ths.tas.gov.au (S.Y.); andrew.williams@ 123456utas.edu.au (A.D.W.)
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tasmanian Health Services (THS), North West Hospital, Burnie, Tasmania 7320, Australia
                [4 ]Lung Function Unit, North West Regional Hospital, Burnie, Tasmania 7320, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sssohal@ 123456utas.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-424-753-373
                Article
                jcm-09-02778
                10.3390/jcm9092778
                7565456
                32867314
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Opinion

                copd, forced oscillation technique, smoking, small airways

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