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      Nano-niosomes as nanoscale drug delivery systems: an illustrated review.

      Journal of Controlled Release
      Animals, Drug Delivery Systems, methods, Humans, Liposomes, chemistry, Nanostructures, Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical Preparations, administration & dosage, Surface-Active Agents

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          The field of nanochemistry research has shown a great progress in the developing of novel nanocarriers as potential drug delivery systems. Niosome is a class of molecular cluster formed by self-association of non-ionic surfactants in an aqueous phase. The unique structure of niosome presents an effective novel drug delivery system (NDDS) with ability of loading both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Numerous research articles have been published in scientific journals, reporting valuable results of individual case studies in this context. However, surveying and discussing the recent, rapidly growing reported studies along with their theoretical principals is required for the fully understanding and exploring the great potential of this approach. To this aim, we have provided an illustrated and comprehensive study from the view of a supramolecular chemist, interested in the synthesizing and studying chemical aggregates on the nanoscale for the development of nanotechnological clusters including niosomes. First, a connectional review of the molecular structure and physicochemical properties of niosome forming non-ionic surfactants and additive agents have been discussed. Second, a systematic survey of niosome preparation and loading methods, administration routes, characterization of niosomes, their toxicity studies and mechanism of drug release; used in recent articles have been performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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