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      Clinical aspects of intraoperative radiotherapy in early breast cancer: short-term complications after IORT in women treated with low energy x-rays

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          To assess postoperative complications, clinical outcome and histological findings in patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy with low energy x-rays for early breast cancer.


          We retrospectively analysed data of 208 women who underwent intraoperative irradiation during breast conserving surgery (BCS) between 2002 and 2007. Demographic, clinical and surgical parameters as well as short-term complications within the first postoperative week and histological findings were evaluated. Toxicities were assessed using the CTC/EORTC Score.


          Postoperative complications were rare and the immediate toxicity low, without any grade 3/4 acute toxicity. The most frequent postoperative side effects were suggillation (24%) and palpable seroma (17.3%). In 78.6% of the axillary seroma and in 25% of the breast seroma a needle aspiration was inevitable. Erythema grade I-II of the breast was found in 27 women (13%); whereas in 7 patients (3.4%), mastitis was confirmed. In 57.7% of the cases, the pathological assessment revealed ductal invasive breast cancer and tumour size ranged between 0.1 and 4.5 cm (mean = 1.6 cm).


          IORT using Intrabeam ® during BCS is safe, although it is associated with postoperative adverse events such as seroma. These should be mentioned and explained to women in detail during the preoperative discussion. This explicitly clinical description is useful for daily clinical practice; especially for giving a detailed analysis of the postoperative side effects during preoperative counselling.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer (TARGIT-A trial): an international, prospective, randomised, non-inferiority phase 3 trial.

          After breast-conserving surgery, 90% of local recurrences occur within the index quadrant despite the presence of multicentric cancers elsewhere in the breast. Thus, restriction of radiation therapy to the tumour bed during surgery might be adequate for selected patients. We compared targeted intraoperative radiotherapy with the conventional policy of whole breast external beam radiotherapy. Having safely piloted the new technique of single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy with Intrabeam, we launched the TARGIT-A trial on March 24, 2000. In this prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial, women aged 45 years or older with invasive ductal breast carcinoma undergoing breast-conserving surgery were enrolled from 28 centres in nine countries. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive targeted intraoperative radiotherapy or whole breast external beam radiotherapy, with blocks stratified by centre and by timing of delivery of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy. Neither patients nor investigators or their teams were masked to treatment assignment. Postoperative discovery of predefined factors (eg, lobular carcinoma) could trigger addition of external beam radiotherapy to targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (in an expected 15% of patients). The primary outcome was local recurrence in the conserved breast. The predefined non-inferiority margin was an absolute difference of 2.5% in the primary endpoint. All randomised patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00983684. 1113 patients were randomly allocated to targeted intraoperative radiotherapy and 1119 were allocated to external beam radiotherapy. Of 996 patients who received the allocated treatment in the targeted intraoperative radiotherapy group, 854 (86%) received targeted intraoperative radiotherapy only and 142 (14%) received targeted intraoperative radiotherapy plus external beam radiotherapy. 1025 (92%) patients in the external beam radiotherapy group received the allocated treatment. At 4 years, there were six local recurrences in the intraoperative radiotherapy group and five in the external beam radiotherapy group. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of local recurrence in the conserved breast at 4 years was 1.20% (95% CI 0.53-2.71) in the targeted intraoperative radiotherapy and 0.95% (0.39-2.31) in the external beam radiotherapy group (difference between groups 0.25%, -1.04 to 1.54; p=0.41). The frequency of any complications and major toxicity was similar in the two groups (for major toxicity, targeted intraoperative radiotherapy, 37 [3.3%] of 1113 vs external beam radiotherapy, 44 [3.9%] of 1119; p=0.44). Radiotherapy toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3) was lower in the targeted intraoperative radiotherapy group (six patients [0.5%]) than in the external beam radiotherapy group (23 patients [2.1%]; p=0.002). For selected patients with early breast cancer, a single dose of radiotherapy delivered at the time of surgery by use of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy should be considered as an alternative to external beam radiotherapy delivered over several weeks. University College London Hospitals (UCLH)/UCL Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, UCLH Charities, National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme, Ninewells Cancer Campaign, National Health and Medical Research Council, and German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Guidelines for evaluation of new fever in critically ill adult patients: 2008 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            To update the practice parameters for the evaluation of adult patients who develop a new fever in the intensive care unit, for the purpose of guiding clinical practice. A task force of 11 experts in the disciplines related to critical care medicine and infectious diseases was convened from the membership of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Specialties represented included critical care medicine, surgery, internal medicine, infectious diseases, neurology, and laboratory medicine/microbiology. The task force members provided personal experience and determined the published literature (MEDLINE articles, textbooks, etc.) from which consensus was obtained. Published literature was reviewed and classified into one of four categories, according to study design and scientific value. The task force met twice in person, several times by teleconference, and held multiple e-mail discussions during a 2-yr period to identify the pertinent literature and arrive at consensus recommendations. Consideration was given to the relationship between the weight of scientific evidence and the strength of the recommendation. Draft documents were composed and debated by the task force until consensus was reached by nominal group process. The panel concluded that, because fever can have many infectious and noninfectious etiologies, a new fever in a patient in the intensive care unit should trigger a careful clinical assessment rather than automatic orders for laboratory and radiologic tests. A cost-conscious approach to obtaining cultures and imaging studies should be undertaken if indicated after a clinical evaluation. The goal of such an approach is to determine, in a directed manner, whether infection is present so that additional testing can be avoided and therapeutic decisions can be made.
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              Nipple-sparing mastectomy: risk of nipple-areolar recurrences in a series of 579 cases.

              When the conservative treatment is not recommended, Nipple Sparing Mastectomy (NSM) is proposed more and more frequently for the surgical treatment of breast cancer. The risk of local recurrence behind the nipple areolar complex (NAC) is the main limiting factor of the NSM procedure. To minimize such risk, we proposed in 2002 a intraoperative radiotherapy of the preserved NAC. From March 2002 to November 2006, 579 cases (in 570 patients) of NSM were performed for carcinoma. The median follow up time was 19 months (Range: 1-60). The subcutaneous mastectomy was performed through an incision removing a portion of the skin overlying the tumour. An extemporaneous histological examination was performed on the retroareolar glandular tissue. If the histology was positive the patient was not considered eligible. Then an intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (ELIOT) of 16 Gy in one shot was delivered on the NAC area. An immediate breast reconstruction was done using implants in most cases and in several cases a musculocutaneous flaps, usually in large breast. The number of local recurrences was recorded and the correlation between their occurrence and the clinical and histological criteria were analysed using the Gray test statistical method in a competing framework. In 516 cases the negative retroareolar frozen section biopsy was confirmed by the final histology, while in 63 cases, the final histology showed foci of carcinoma. Seven out of these 63 cases underwent a secondary NAC removal. In the 56 cases which preserved areolas we did not observe any local recurrence after 19 months follow up. The probability of retro areola positive histology increases with the tumour size. and was not related to the nodal status. The rate of local relapses was 0.9% per year. We didn't find any significant difference in the local relapse rate according to different patient's and tumour's features. Most relapses were located close to the tumour bed but never in the NAC area. Our study confirms that the local recurrence rate in the NSM completed with local radiotherapy on the NAC is not higher than the usual rate observed in the literature and the preservation of the NAC does not increase the risk. The absence of local recurrence in the region where a portion of glandular tissue has been purposely preserved is a good argument in favour of ELIOT.

                Author and article information

                Radiat Oncol
                Radiat Oncol
                Radiation Oncology (London, England)
                BioMed Central
                22 April 2013
                : 8
                : 95
                [1 ]Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, Mannheim, 68167, Germany
                Copyright ©2013 Tuschy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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