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      MFAP4-Mediated Effects in Elastic Fiber Homeostasis, Integrin Signaling and Cancer, and Its Role in Teleost Fish

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      Cells
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein belonging to the fibrinogen-related domain superfamily. MFAP4 is highly expressed in elastin-rich tissues such as lung, blood vessels and skin. MFAP4 is involved in organization of the ECM, regulating proper elastic fiber assembly. On the other hand, during pathology MFAP4 actively contributes to disease development and progression due to its interactions with RGD-dependent integrin receptors. Both tissue expression and circulating MFAP4 levels are associated with various disorders, including liver fibrosis and cancer. In other experimental models, such as teleost fish, MFAP4 appears to participate in host defense as a macrophage-specific innate immune molecule. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that indicates the importance of MFAP4 in homeostasis as well as pathological conditions, discuss its known biological functions with special focus on elastic fiber assembly, integrin signaling and cancer, as well as describe the reported functions of non-mammalian MFAP4 in fish. Overall, our work provides a comprehensive overview on the role of MFAP4 in health and disease.

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          A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome

          Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and there is great interest in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of individual tumors. We used systems-level approaches to analyze the genome-wide transcriptome of the protein-coding genes of 17 major cancer types with respect to clinical outcome. A general pattern emerged: Shorter patient survival was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in cell growth and with down-regulation of genes involved in cellular differentiation. Using genome-scale metabolic models, we show that cancer patients have widespread metabolic heterogeneity, highlighting the need for precise and personalized medicine for cancer treatment. All data are presented in an interactive open-access database (www.proteinatlas.org/pathology) to allow genome-wide exploration of the impact of individual proteins on clinical outcomes.
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            Is Open Access

            A single–cell type transcriptomics map of human tissues

            Single-cell RNA analysis has been integrated with spatial protein profiling to create a single–cell type map of human tissues. Advances in molecular profiling have opened up the possibility to map the expression of genes in cells, tissues, and organs in the human body. Here, we combined single-cell transcriptomics analysis with spatial antibody-based protein profiling to create a high-resolution single–cell type map of human tissues. An open access atlas has been launched to allow researchers to explore the expression of human protein-coding genes in 192 individual cell type clusters. An expression specificity classification was performed to determine the number of genes elevated in each cell type, allowing comparisons with bulk transcriptomics data. The analysis highlights distinct expression clusters corresponding to cell types sharing similar functions, both within the same organs and between organs.
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              Integrin Signaling in Cancer: Mechanotransduction, Stemness, Epithelial Plasticity, and Therapeutic Resistance

              Integrins mediate cell adhesion and transmit mechanical and chemical signals to the cell interior. Various mechanisms deregulate integrin signaling in cancer, empowering tumor cells with the ability to proliferate without restraint, to invade through tissue boundaries, and to survive in foreign microenvironments. Recent studies have revealed that integrin signaling drives multiple stem cell functions, including tumor initiation, epithelial plasticity, metastatic reactivation, and resistance to oncogene- and immune-targeted therapies. Here, we discuss the mechanisms leading to the deregulation of integrin signaling in cancer and its various consequences. We place emphasis on novel functions, determinants of context dependency, and mechanism-based therapeutic opportunities.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                CELLC6
                Cells
                Cells
                MDPI AG
                2073-4409
                July 2022
                July 05 2022
                : 11
                : 13
                : 2115
                Article
                10.3390/cells11132115
                35805199
                8da79809-2815-4dda-8cb3-4d5e4f051426
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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