Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein belonging to the fibrinogen-related domain superfamily. MFAP4 is highly expressed in elastin-rich tissues such as lung, blood vessels and skin. MFAP4 is involved in organization of the ECM, regulating proper elastic fiber assembly. On the other hand, during pathology MFAP4 actively contributes to disease development and progression due to its interactions with RGD-dependent integrin receptors. Both tissue expression and circulating MFAP4 levels are associated with various disorders, including liver fibrosis and cancer. In other experimental models, such as teleost fish, MFAP4 appears to participate in host defense as a macrophage-specific innate immune molecule. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that indicates the importance of MFAP4 in homeostasis as well as pathological conditions, discuss its known biological functions with special focus on elastic fiber assembly, integrin signaling and cancer, as well as describe the reported functions of non-mammalian MFAP4 in fish. Overall, our work provides a comprehensive overview on the role of MFAP4 in health and disease.