Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Prevalence of obesity and overweight in adults and children in Iran; a systematic review

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      BackgroundObesity is one of the most important underlying risk factors for chronic disease. Dramatically increasing and following complication of obesity should be alerted to health politicians and practitioners to prevent associated health risks. This review aimed to give a better insight into the prevalence of obesity and overweight in different areas of Iran.MethodAll published internal (SID, Irandoc, Iranmedex), and international (Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, Scopus) source studies, reported the prevalence of overweight/obesity among normal population samples, during Jan 2005 through Jan 2014, were assessed in this review. Paper selection processes were done by two researchers separately. Studies which met the eligible criteria were included in this review.ResultOne hundred ninety three eligible studies enter into our review. Of 193 final selected studies, 86 (15 national, 71 sub national) of them were reported the prevalence of obesity/overweight in adult, and 107 studies (11 national, 96 sub national) in under-18 by individual. The range of overweight and obesity prevalence in national studies in adult, was 27.0-38.5 (95% CI: 26.8-27.1, 37.2-39.8), and 12.6-25.9 (95% CI: 12.2-13.0, 24.9-26.8), separately. In under-18 the range of overweight and obesity prevalence in national studies were 5.0-13.5 (95% CI: 4.5-5.5, 13.4-13.6), and 3.2-11.9 (95% CI: 3.0-3.4, 11.3-12.4).ConclusionObesity as an important public health problem has been discussed in recent few decades worldwide. Although the national reported prevalence of obesity in Iran was not considerably diverse, but remarkable differences were seen in the sub national prevalence which must be noticed more in political health programs especially among women and children.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40200-014-0121-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 327

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.

      More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. To provide the most recent national estimates of childhood obesity, analyze trends in childhood obesity between 2003 and 2012, and provide detailed obesity trend analyses among adults. Weight and height or recumbent length were measured in 9120 participants in the 2011-2012 nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In infants and toddlers from birth to 2 years, high weight for recumbent length was defined as weight for length at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. In children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. In adults, obesity was defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 30. Analyses of trends in high weight for recumbent length or obesity prevalence were conducted overall and separately by age across 5 periods (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). In 2011-2012, 8.1% (95% CI, 5.8%-11.1%) of infants and toddlers had high weight for recumbent length, and 16.9% (95% CI, 14.9%-19.2%) of 2- to 19-year-olds and 34.9% (95% CI, 32.0%-37.9%) of adults (age-adjusted) aged 20 years or older were obese. Overall, there was no significant change from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012 in high weight for recumbent length among infants and toddlers, obesity in 2- to 19-year-olds, or obesity in adults. Tests for an interaction between survey period and age found an interaction in children (P = .03) and women (P = .02). There was a significant decrease in obesity among 2- to 5-year-old children (from 13.9% to 8.4%; P = .03) and a significant increase in obesity among women aged 60 years and older (from 31.5% to 38.1%; P = .006). Overall, there have been no significant changes in obesity prevalence in youth or adults between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Obesity prevalence remains high and thus it is important to continue surveillance.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease.

        Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been in the context of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. Our aim was to estimate the contributions of selected major risk factors to global and regional burden of disease in a unified framework. For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups undertook a comprehensive review of published work and other sources--eg, government reports and international databases--to obtain data on the prevalence of risk factor exposure and hazard size for 14 epidemiological regions of the world. Population attributable fractions were estimated by applying the potential impact fraction relation, and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the global burden of disease (GBD) database. Childhood and maternal underweight (138 million disability adjusted life years [DALY], 9.5%), unsafe sex (92 million DALY, 6.3%), high blood pressure (64 million DALY, 4.4%), tobacco (59 million DALY, 4.1%), and alcohol (58 million DALY, 4.0%) were the leading causes of global burden of disease. In the poorest regions of the world, childhood and maternal underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene, indoor smoke from solid fuels, and various micronutrient deficiencies were major contributors to loss of healthy life. In both developing and developed regions, alcohol, tobacco, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol were major causes of disease burden. Substantial proportions of global disease burden are attributable to these major risks, to an extent greater than previously estimated. Developing countries suffer most or all of the burden due to many of the leading risks. Strategies that target these known risks can provide substantial and underestimated public-health gains.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

          The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
            [ ]Department of Community Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
            [ ]Non communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
            [ ]Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 5th floor of Shariati Hospital, North Karegar St., P.O Box 1411413137, Tehran, Iran
            Contributors
            shahrzad_jafari@hotmail.com
            zdjuyandeh@yahoo.com
            mqorbani1379@yahoo.com
            soroush1344@gmail.com
            Larijani@tums.ac.ir
            shirinhasanir@yahoo.com
            Journal
            J Diabetes Metab Disord
            J Diabetes Metab Disord
            Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
            BioMed Central (London )
            2251-6581
            23 December 2014
            23 December 2014
            2014
            : 13
            : 1
            4301060
            121
            10.1186/s40200-014-0121-2
            © Jafari-Adli et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Categories
            Review Article
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2014

            Comments

            Comment on this article