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      The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in pathologically lymph node-positive prostate cancer : Adjuvant RT in pN-Positive Prostate Ca

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          Abstract

          Postoperative management of prostate cancer with lymph node involvement (LNI) is controversial. Retrospective evidence supports the selective use of radiotherapy (RT) after extended pelvic lymph node dissection. It is unclear whether this is generalizable to practice in the United States, where extended dissection is uncommon. The authors identified patients with LNI who potentially could derive a survival benefit with adjuvant RT plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

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          Most cited references32

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          Phase III postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy compared with radical prostatectomy alone in pT3 prostate cancer with postoperative undetectable prostate-specific antigen: ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95.

          Local failure after radical prostatectomy (RP) is common in patients with cancer extending beyond the capsule. Two randomized trials demonstrated an advantage for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) compared with a wait-and-see policy. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare RP followed by immediate RT with RP alone for patients with pT3 prostate cancer and an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after RP. After RP, 192 men were randomly assigned to a wait-and-see policy, and 193 men were assigned to immediate postoperative RT. Eligible patients had pT3 pN0 tumors. Patients who did not achieve an undetectable PSA after RP were excluded from treatment according to random assignment (n = 78; 20%). Of the remaining 307 patients, 34 patients on the RT arm did not receive RT and five patients on the wait-and-see arm received RT. Therefore, 114 patients underwent RT and 154 patients were treated with a wait-and-see policy. The primary end point was biochemical progression-free survival. Biochemical progression-free survival after 5 years in patients with undetectable PSA after RP was significantly improved in the RT group (72%; 95% CI, 65% to 81%; v 54%, 95% CI, 45% to 63%; hazard ratio = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.79; P = .0015). On univariate analysis, Gleason score more than 6 and less than 7, PSA before RP, tumor stage, and positive surgical margins were predictors of outcome. The rate of grade 3 to 4 late adverse effects was 0.3%. Adjuvant RT for pT3 prostate cancer with postoperatively undetectable PSA significantly reduces the risk of biochemical progression. Further follow-up is needed to assess the effect on metastases-free and overall survival.
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            Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911).

            Local failure after prostatectomy can arise in patients with cancer extending beyond the capsule. We did a randomised controlled trial to compare radical prostatectomy followed by immediate external irradiation with prostatectomy alone for patients with positive surgical margin or pT3 prostate cancer. After undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy, 503 patients were randomly assigned to a wait-and-see policy, and 502 to immediate postoperative radiotherapy (60 Gy conventional irradiation delivered over 6 weeks). Eligible patients had pN0M0 tumours and one or more pathological risk factors: capsule perforation, positive surgical margins, invasion of seminal vesicles. Our revised primary endpoint was biochemical progression-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The median age was 65 years (IQR 61-69). After a median follow-up of 5 years, biochemical progression-free survival was significantly improved in the irradiated group (74.0%, 98% CI 68.7-79.3 vs 52.6%, 46.6-58.5; p<0.0001). Clinical progression-free survival was also significantly improved (p=0.0009). The cumulative rate of locoregional failure was significantly lower in the irradiated group (p<0.0001). Grade 2 or 3 late effects were significantly more frequent in the postoperative irradiation group (p=0.0005), but severe toxic toxicity (grade 3 or higher) were rare, with a 5-year rate of 2.6% in the wait-and-see group and 4.2% in the postoperative irradiation group (p=0.0726). Immediate external irradiation after radical prostatectomy improves biochemical progression-free survival and local control in patients with positive surgical margins or pT3 prostate cancer who are at high risk of progression. Further follow-up is needed to assess the effect on overall survival.
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              Screening for prostate cancer decreases the risk of developing metastatic disease: findings from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC).

              Metastatic disease is a major morbidity of prostate cancer (PCa). Its prevention is an important goal. To assess the effect of screening for PCa on the incidence of metastatic disease in a randomized trial. Data were available for 76,813 men aged 55-69 yr coming from four centers of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). The presence of metastatic disease was evaluated by imaging or by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values >100 ng/ml at diagnosis and during follow-up. Regular screening based on serum PSA measurements was offered to 36270 men randomized to the screening arm, while no screening was provided to the 40543 men in the control arm. The Nelson-Aalen technique and Poisson regression were used to calculate cumulative incidence and rate ratios of M+ disease. After a median follow-up of 12 yr, 666 men with M+ PCa were detected, 256 in the screening arm and 410 in the control arm, resulting in cumulative incidence of 0.67% and 0.86% per 1000 men, respectively (p<0.001). This finding translated into a relative reduction of 30% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.82; p=0.001) in the intention-to-screen analysis and a 42% (p=0.0001) reduction for men who were actually screened. An absolute risk reduction of metastatic disease of 3.1 per 1000 men randomized (0.31%) was found. A large discrepancy was seen when comparing the rates of M+ detected at diagnosis and all M+ cases that emerged during the total follow-up period, a 50% reduction (HR: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41-0.62) versus the 30% reduction. The main limitation is incomplete explanation of the lack of an effect of screening during follow-up. PSA screening significantly reduces the risk of developing metastatic PCa. However, despite earlier diagnosis with screening, certain men still progress and develop metastases. The ERSPC trial is registered under number ISRCTN49127736. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer
                Cancer
                Wiley-Blackwell
                0008543X
                February 01 2017
                February 01 2017
                : 123
                : 3
                : 512-520
                Article
                10.1002/cncr.30373
                27859018
                8daa08e8-241e-42a1-8131-97bf60e472ab
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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