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      Sex Differences in the Regulation of Vasopressin and Oxytocin Secretion in Bile Duct-Ligated Rats

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          Introduction: Hyponatremia due to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion increases mortality in liver failure patients. No previous studies have addressed sex differences in hyponatremia in liver failure animal models. Objective: This study addressed this gap in our understanding of the potential sex differences in hyponatremia associated with increased AVP secretion. Methods: This study tested the role of sex in the development of hyponatremia using adult male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) female bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Results: All BDL rats had significantly increased liver to body weight ratios compared to sham controls. Male BDL rats had hyponatremia with significant increases in plasma copeptin and FosB expression in supraoptic AVP neurons compared to male shams (all p < 0.05; 5–7). Female BDL rats did not become hyponatremic or demonstrate increased supraoptic AVP neuron activation and copeptin secretion compared to female shams. Plasma oxytocin was significantly higher in female BDL rats compared to female sham ( p < 0.05; 6–10). This increase was not observed in male BDL rats. Ovariectomy significantly decreased plasma estradiol in sham rats compared to intact female sham ( p < 0.05; 6–10). However, circulating estradiol was significantly elevated in OVX BDL rats compared to the OVX and female shams ( p < 0.05; 6–10). Adrenal estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured to identify a possible source of circulating estradiol in OVX BDL rats. The OVX BDL rats had significantly increased adrenal estradiol along with significantly decreased adrenal testosterone and DHEA compared to OVX shams (all p < 0.05; 6–7). Plasma osmolality, hematocrit, copeptin, and AVP neuron activation were not significantly different between OVX BDL and OVX shams. Plasma oxytocin was significantly higher in OVX BDL rats compared to OVX sham. Conclusions: Our results show that unlike male BDL rats, female and OVX BDL rats did not develop hyponatremia, supraoptic AVP neuron activation, or increased copeptin secretion compared to female shams. Adrenal estradiol might have compensated for the lack of ovarian estrogens in OVX BDL rats.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Prolonged bile duct obstruction: a new experimental model for cirrhosis in the rat.

          Hepatic morphological abnormalities were examined in rats whose bile ducts had been either cannulated and then obstructed or irreversibly ligated for 5, 10, 15 and 28 days or longer. Throughout the experiment most of the morphological changes observed in the cannulated group were comparable to those in the ligated group. Portal inflammation and marginal bile duct proliferation were noted with the same frequency in both groups. Biliary obstruction for 15 days or more led to cirrhosis. After 28 days obstruction, five out of six cannulated rats and four out of six ligated animals respectively developed cirrhosis. The development of cirrhosis was progressive and associated with ascites. It is concluded that in the rat the morphological sequelae of long term cholestasis induced by either cannulation and obstruction or ligation of bile ducts are similar and are accompanied by cirrhosis. The advantages of this experimental model for the study of human cirrhosis are discussed.
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            Vaginal Cytology of the Laboratory Rat and Mouse: Review and Criteria for the Staging of the Estrous Cycle Using Stained Vaginal Smears.

            Microscopic evaluation of the types of cells present in vaginal smears has long been used to document the stages of the estrous cycle in laboratory rats and mice and as an index of the functional status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The estrous cycle is generally divided into the four stages of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. On cytological evaluation, these stages are defined by the absence, presence, or proportion of 4 basic cell types as well as by the cell density and arrangement of the cells on the slide. Multiple references regarding the cytology of the rat and mouse estrous cycle are available. Many contemporary references and studies, however, have relatively abbreviated definitions of the stages, are in reference to direct wet mount preparations, or lack comprehensive illustrations. This has led to ambiguity and, in some cases, a loss of appreciation for the encountered nuances of dividing a steadily moving cycle into 4 stages. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description, discussion, and illustration of vaginal cytology of the rat and mouse estrous cycle as it appears on smears stained with metachromatic stains.
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              Renin angiotensin system and gender differences in the cardiovascular system.

              In the effort to explain gender-related differences of the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin system experienced intensive exploration. Indeed, the development of hypertension as well as the progression of coronary artery disease and heart failure have two factors in common: (1) display distinct gender specific characteristics and (2) are enhanced by the renin-angiotensin system. It is therefore interesting to note that data from experimental animals, epidemiological surveys, and clinical investigations suggest that the components of the circulating as well as tissue-based renin-angiotensin system are markedly affected by gender. However, the issue is complicated by counter-regulatory effects of estrogen on the system with the substrate, on one hand, and the processing enzymes as well as the chief receptor, on the other hand. In fact, angiotensinogen is up-regulated particularly by oral administration of estrogen, whereas renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and AT-1 receptor are down-regulated by the hormone. While under well-defined experimental conditions the net effect of estrogen appears to result in suppression of the renin-angiotensin system, the clinical situation may be more complex. The judgment is further complicated by the difficulty in precisely measuring the activity of the system at the tissue level. Moreover, clinically relevant read-outs for the activity of the renin-angiotensin system may be regulated multifactorially or only indirectly affected by the system. Nevertheless, the undisputable, profound biochemical changes in the renin-angiotensin system related to the estrogen status allow speculation that such interaction explains some of the differences in the cardiovascular system of men and women.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2021
                24 April 2020
                : 111
                : 3
                : 237-248
                aDepartment of Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
                bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
                Author notes
                *J. Thomas Cunningham, Department of Physiology and Anatomy, EAD-318B, UNT Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (USA), Tom.Cunningham@unthsc.edu
                508104 PMC7584765 Neuroendocrinology 2021;111:237–248
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Pages: 12
                Research Article


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