Glycosylation is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification in eukaryotes. N-glycan is attached to nascent glycoproteins and is processed and matured by various glycosidases and glycosyltransferases during protein transport. Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that alternations of the N-glycan structure play crucial roles in various physiological and pathological events including progression of cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, the formation of N-glycan branches regulates the functions of target glycoprotein, which are catalyzed by specific N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases (GnTs) such as GnT-III, GnT-IVs, GnT-V, and GnT-IX, and a fucosyltransferase, FUT8s. Although the 3D structures of all enzymes have not been solved to date, recent progress in structural analysis of these glycosyltransferases has provided insights into substrate recognition and catalytic reaction mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the biological significance and structure-function relationships of these enzymes.