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      Microfluidic-Based Oxygen (O2) Sensors for On-Chip Monitoring of Cell, Tissue and Organ Metabolism

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      Biosensors
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Oxygen (O2) quantification is essential for assessing cell metabolism, and its consumption in cell culture is an important indicator of cell viability. Recent advances in microfluidics have made O2 sensing a crucial feature for organ-on-chip (OOC) devices for various biomedical applications. OOC O2 sensors can be categorized, based on their transducer type, into two main groups, optical and electrochemical. In this review, we provide an overview of on-chip O2 sensors integrated with the OOC devices and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. Recent innovations in optical O2 sensors integrated with OOCs are discussed in four main categories: (i) basic luminescence-based sensors; (ii) microparticle-based sensors; (iii) nano-enabled sensors; and (iv) commercial probes and portable devices. Furthermore, we discuss recent advancements in electrochemical sensors in five main categories: (i) novel configurations in Clark-type sensors; (ii) novel materials (e.g., polymers, O2 scavenging and passivation materials); (iii) nano-enabled electrochemical sensors; (iv) novel designs and fabrication techniques; and (v) commercial and portable electrochemical readouts. Together, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the current advances in the design, fabrication and application of optical and electrochemical O2 sensors.

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          Most cited references120

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          Three-dimensional cell culture systems and their applications in drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

          Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have gained increasing interest in drug discovery and tissue engineering due to their evident advantages in providing more physiologically relevant information and more predictive data for in vivo tests. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of 3D cell culture systems in comparison to the two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture, focusing on cell growth conditions, cell proliferation, population, and gene and protein expression profiles. The innovations and development in 3D culture systems for drug discovery over the past 5 years are also reviewed in the article, emphasizing the cellular response to different classes of anticancer drugs, focusing particularly on similarities and differences between 3D and 2D models across the field. The progression and advancement in the application of 3D cell cultures in cell-based biosensors is another focal point of this review.
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            Optical methods for sensing and imaging oxygen: materials, spectroscopies and applications.

            We review the current state of optical methods for sensing oxygen. These have become powerful alternatives to electrochemical detection and in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. The article (with 694 references) is divided into main sections on direct spectroscopic sensing of oxygen, on absorptiometric and luminescent probes, on polymeric matrices and supports, on additives and related materials, on spectroscopic schemes for read-out and imaging, and on sensing formats (such as waveguide sensing, sensor arrays, multiple sensors and nanosensors). We finally discuss future trends and applications and summarize the properties of the most often used indicator probes and polymers. The ESI† (with 385 references) gives a selection of specific applications of such sensors in medicine, biology, marine and geosciences, intracellular sensing, aerodynamics, industry and biotechnology, among others.
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              A Review on Biosensors and Recent Development of Nanostructured Materials-Enabled Biosensors

              A biosensor is an integrated receptor-transducer device, which can convert a biological response into an electrical signal. The design and development of biosensors have taken a center stage for researchers or scientists in the recent decade owing to the wide range of biosensor applications, such as health care and disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring, water and food quality monitoring, and drug delivery. The main challenges involved in the biosensor progress are (i) the efficient capturing of biorecognition signals and the transformation of these signals into electrochemical, electrical, optical, gravimetric, or acoustic signals (transduction process), (ii) enhancing transducer performance i.e., increasing sensitivity, shorter response time, reproducibility, and low detection limits even to detect individual molecules, and (iii) miniaturization of the biosensing devices using micro-and nano-fabrication technologies. Those challenges can be met through the integration of sensing technology with nanomaterials, which range from zero- to three-dimensional, possessing a high surface-to-volume ratio, good conductivities, shock-bearing abilities, and color tunability. Nanomaterials (NMs) employed in the fabrication and nanobiosensors include nanoparticles (NPs) (high stability and high carrier capacity), nanowires (NWs) and nanorods (NRs) (capable of high detection sensitivity), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity), and quantum dots (QDs) (color tunability). Furthermore, these nanomaterials can themselves act as transduction elements. This review summarizes the evolution of biosensors, the types of biosensors based on their receptors, transducers, and modern approaches employed in biosensors using nanomaterials such as NPs (e.g., noble metal NPs and metal oxide NPs), NWs, NRs, CNTs, QDs, and dendrimers and their recent advancement in biosensing technology with the expansion of nanotechnology.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                BIOSHU
                Biosensors
                Biosensors
                MDPI AG
                2079-6374
                January 2022
                December 22 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : 6
                Article
                10.3390/bios12010006
                8dc7aaba-73b1-4b66-9238-6c3d81e5939a
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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