Objective To explore the risk factors of bronchial asthma in children with allergic rhinitis, and to provide evidence for the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis.
Methods Children with allergic rhinitis and children with allergic rhinitis and asthma, who attended the Allergy Clinic of the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from November 2019 to October 2020, were recruited for the study. Medical history, clinical characteristics, allergen types and risk factors were collected and analyzed.
Results A total of 117 children with allergic rhinitis and 111 children with allergic rhinitis that subsequently developed into asthma were included. The results of the univariate analysis showed that the occurrence of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis was associated with the course of rhinitis, severity of rhinitis, type of rhinitis, seasonal onset, history of pet contact, family history of allergic diseases, mold, ragweed, dermatophagoides culinae and dust mite sensitization (χ 2 = 6.15, 8.79, 3.99, 9.44, 5.17, 4.43, 8.48, 10.38, 6.18, 5.31, P<0.05). The Logistic regression analysis showed that rhinitis severity ( OR = 7.03), family history of allergic diseases ( OR = 8.24), mold ( OR = 5.19), and household dust mite sensitization ( OR = 25.25) were positively correlated with the occurrence of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis ( P<0.05), and dust mite sensitization was the strongest risk factor.
Conclusion The development of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis is affected by many factors, among which the severity of rhinitis, family history of allergic diseases and dust mite sensitization are the most important factors.
【摘要】 目的 探讨过敏性鼻炎患儿发生支气管哮喘的危险因素, 为鼻炎患儿发生哮喘的早期诊断、治疗和预防提供依 据。 方法 纳人 2019 年 11 月至 2020 年 10 月在首都儿科研究所变态反应科门诊就诊的单纯过敏性鼻炎患儿 (117 例) 和 过敏性鼻炎继发哮喘患儿 (111 例), 采集病史, 检测过敏原, 对其临床特征、过敏原种类及危险因素等进行统计分析。 结果 单因素分析显示, 鼻炎病程、鼻炎严重度、鼻炎类型、季节特征、宠物接触史、过敏性疾病家族史、霉菌、豚草、粉尘螨和户尘 螨致敏与过敏性鼻炎患儿哮喘的发生相关 (χ 2 值分别为 6.15, 8.79, 3.99, 9.44, 5.17, 4.43, 8.48, 10.38, 6.18, 5.31, P 值均< 0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示, 鼻炎严重度 ( OR = 7.03)、过敏性疾病家族史 ( OR = 8.24)、霉菌 ( OR = 5.19)、粉尘螨 ( OR = 25.25) 与过敏性鼻炎患儿哮喘的发生呈正相关 ( P 值均<0.05), 粉尘螨致敏患儿的风险最高。 结论 儿童过敏性鼻 炎继发哮喘受多种因素影响, 其中鼻炎严重度、过敏性疾病家族史、尘螨致敏是最主要的因素。