Blog
About

10
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      AMPK: Potential Therapeutic Target for Ischemic Stroke

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinase group, is universally distributed in various cells and organs. It is a significant endogenous defensive molecule that responds to harmful stimuli, such as cerebral ischemia, cerebral hemorrhage, and, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD). Cerebral ischemia, which results from insufficient blood flow or the blockage of blood vessels, is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke has received increased attention due to its '3H' effects, namely high mortality, high morbidity, and high disability. Numerous studies have revealed that activation of AMPK plays a protective role in the brain, whereas its action in ischemic stroke remains elusive and poorly understood. Based on existing evidence, we introduce the basic structure, upstream regulators, and biological roles of AMPK. Second, we analyze the relationship between AMPK and the neurovascular unit (NVU). Third, the actions of AMPK in different phases of ischemia and current therapeutic methods are discussed. Finally, we evaluate existing controversy and provide a detailed analysis, followed by ethical issues, potential directions, and further prospects of AMPK. The information complied here may aid in clinical and basic research of AMPK, which may be a potent drug candidate for ischemic stroke treatment in the future.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 166

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

            Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 18,113 patients who had atrial fibrillation and a risk of stroke to receive, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran--110 mg or 150 mg twice daily--or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The median duration of the follow-up period was 2.0 years. The primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. Rates of the primary outcome were 1.69% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 1.53% per year in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (relative risk with dabigatran, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.11% per year in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.82; P<0.001 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 3.36% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 2.71% per year in the group receiving 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.003) and 3.11% per year in the group receiving 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.31). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.38% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 0.12% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001) and 0.10% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001). The mortality rate was 4.13% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 3.75% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.13) and 3.64% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.051). In patients with atrial fibrillation, dabigatran given at a dose of 110 mg was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of major hemorrhage. Dabigatran administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00262600.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2016 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2018
                10 August 2018
                : 8
                : 16
                : 4535-4551
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education. Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an 710069, China
                [2 ]Department of Aerospace Medicine, The Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China
                [3 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China
                [4 ]Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 127 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China
                [5 ]Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Yang Yang MD., PhD. and Chunhu Gu MD., PhD., Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an 710069, China. Telephone: +86 13379217366; Email address: yang200214yy@ 123456163.com (Yang Yang) and chunhuguxijing@ 123456126.com (Chunhu Gu)

                *These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov08p4535
                10.7150/thno.25674
                6134933
                © Ivyspring International Publisher

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article