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      Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells in immunomodulation: pathological and therapeutic implications.

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2

      Nature immunology

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          Abstract

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in many tissues and are capable of differentiating into several different cell types. Exogenously administered MSCs migrate to damaged tissue sites, where they participate in tissue repair. Their communication with the inflammatory microenvironment is an essential part of this process. In recent years, much has been learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction between MSCs and various participants in inflammation. Depending on their type and intensity, inflammatory stimuli confer on MSCs the ability to suppress the immune response in some cases or to enhance it in others. Here we review the current findings on the immunoregulatory plasticity of MSCs in disease pathogenesis and therapy.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Multilineage Potential of Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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            Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow.

            We report here that cells co-purifying with mesenchymal stem cells--termed here multipotent adult progenitor cells or MAPCs--differentiate, at the single cell level, not only into mesenchymal cells, but also cells with visceral mesoderm, neuroectoderm and endoderm characteristics in vitro. When injected into an early blastocyst, single MAPCs contribute to most, if not all, somatic cell types. On transplantation into a non-irradiated host, MAPCs engraft and differentiate to the haematopoietic lineage, in addition to the epithelium of liver, lung and gut. Engraftment in the haematopoietic system as well as the gastrointestinal tract is increased when MAPCs are transplanted in a minimally irradiated host. As MAPCs proliferate extensively without obvious senescence or loss of differentiation potential, they may be an ideal cell source for therapy of inherited or degenerative diseases.
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              Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease.

              Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells that can be isolated from many adult tissues. They can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, as well as cells of other embryonic lineages. MSCs can interact with cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to the modulation of several effector functions. After in vivo administration, MSCs induce peripheral tolerance and migrate to injured tissues, where they can inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote the survival of damaged cells. This Review discusses the targets and mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunomodulation and the possible translation of MSCs to new therapeutic approaches.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat. Immunol.
                Nature immunology
                1529-2916
                1529-2908
                Nov 2014
                : 15
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
                [2 ] 1] Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. [2] Child Health Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. [3] Soochow Institutes for Translational Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
                ni.3002
                10.1038/ni.3002
                25329189

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